Infection Prevention

Assessment of Prevalence and Determinants’ of Occupational Exposure to HIV Infection Among Health Care Workers in Selected Health Institutions in Debre Birhan Town, North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2014

Health care workers are exposed to different kinds of occupational hazards due to their day to day activities. The most common occupational exposure like body fluids are a potential risk of transmission of blood born infection like human immunodeficiency virus. [from abstract]

Nurses' Knowledge, Practices, and Barriers in Care of Patients with Pressure Ulcers in a Ugandan Teaching Hospital

The purpose of this study was to determine the nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding risk factors, prevention, and management of pressure ulcers at a teaching hospital in Uganda. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. [from abstract]

Ugandan Medical and Health Sciences Interns' Infection Control Knowledge and Practices

This study aimed to highlight the shortcomings in knowledge, attitudes, and practices about infection control of recent graduates of clinical health sciences who started their one-year internship in Uganda so as to recommend areas in which infection control training could be improved. [adapted from author]

Tuberculosis in Healthcare Workers and Infection Control Measures at Primary Healthcare Facilities in South Africa

This study’s objectives were to investigate the implementation of tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures at primary healthcare facilities, the smear positive TB incidence rate amongst primary healthcare workers and the association between TB infection control measures and all types of TB in healthcare workers. [from abstract]

Hand Hygiene Practices among Community Health Officers in Rivers State, Nigeria

Health care associated infections are most commonly transmitted by the hands of Health care workers and other hospital personnel. Therefore, this study investigated compliance with hand hygiene guidelines and methods of hand hygiene practice among community health officers in Rivers State Nigeria. [adapted from abstract]

Estimated Risk of HIV Acquisition and Practice for Preventing Occupational Exposure: A Study of Healthcare Workers at Tumbi and Dodoma Hospitals, Tanzania

The main objective of this study was to estimate the risk of HIV transmission and examine the practices for preventing occupational exposures among health care workers at Tumbi and Dodoma Hospitals in Tanzania. [from abstract]

Development of a Theory-Based Instrument to Identify Barriers and Levers to Best Hand Hygiene Practice among Healthcare Practioners

The article reports on the development of an instrument to assess barriers and levers to hand hygiene and to allow the subsequent tailoring of theoretically informed implementation strategies. The study has produced encouraging findings suggesting the potential for improved hand hygiene and resulting effects on the human and financial costs of healthcare associated infection. [adapted from author]

Infection Prevention and Control: Training Curriculum for Healthcare Workers

Providing education and training to healthcare staff is an important strategy in implementing a tuberculosis infection prevention program. This manual and training curriculum provide information to begin improving infection prevention practices in health facilities and home based care. [adapted from publisher]

National Guidelines for Tuberculosis Infection Control

This guideline emphasises measures that reduce the risk of transmitting tuberculosis (TB) to managers, health care workers, patients, visitors and other persons in the health care facilities and households. It focuses on the safety of health care workers and reduction of patient-to-patient transmission. [adapted from author]

Development of TB Occupational Safety Framework

This report provides a draft framework which outlines action steps a country may take in formulating tuberculosis (TB) occupational safety strategies to encompass the needs of prevention and treatment of TB disease among health care workers. [adapted from summary]

Self-Reported Occupational Exposure to HIV Factors Influencing Its Management Practice: A Study of Healthcare Workers in Tumbi and Dodoma Hospitals, Tanzania

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of self-reported occupational exposure to HIV among health care workers and explore factors that influence the practice of managing occupational exposure to HIV by health care workers in Tanzania. [from abstract]

Educating on Professional Habits: Attitudes of Medical Students Towards Diverse Strategies for Promoting Influenza Vaccination and Factors Associated with the Intention to Get Vaccinated

This cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of three influenza vaccination promotional strategies on medical students’ intention to get vaccinated and associated factors. It also concludes that given previous vaccination is a factor associated with the intention to get vaccinated, education on vaccination of health care workers should begin while they are students. [adapted from abstract]

Uncovering High Rates of Unsafe Injection Equipment Reuse in Rural Cameroon: Validation of a Survey Instrument that Probes for Specific Misconceptions

The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse by health workers and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. [from abstract]

Occupational Exposure to HIV: A Conflict Situation for Health Workers

This study aimed to determine the frequency of occupational exposure to HIV, the circumstances and predisposing factors, the high-risk groups, the extent to which exposures are reported and the post-exposure prophylaxis utilized by health-care workers and students in a Ugandan hospital. [from abstract]

Keeping Health Staff Healthy: Evaluation of a Workplace Initiative to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality from HIV/AIDS in Malawi

This study evaluated two workplace initiatives providing medical services, including HIV care; and a support group for HIV-positive staff to determine the uptake and outcome of HIV testing and counselling among health staff and their dependents; uptake and outcomes of antiretroviral therapy among health staff; and membership and activities of the support group. [adapted from abstract]

Assessment of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Use among Health Workers of Governmental Health Institutions in Jimma Zone, Oromiya Region, Southwest Ethiopia

This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, practice and factors associated to HIV post-exposure prophylaxis use among health workers of governmental health institutions in the Jimma zone. [from abstract]

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Post Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV among Health Care Workers in Gondar, North West Ethiopia

HIV/AIDS infection of workers in health care facilities has become a major health problem. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of health care workers towards post exposure prophylaxis for HIV. [adapted from abstract]

Screening for Latent Tuberculosis in Norwegian Health Care Workers: High Frequency of Discordant Tuberculin Skin Test Positive and Interferon-Gamma Release Assay Negative Results

This study examined the role of blood based interferon-gamma release assays versus the tuberculin skin test for health workers exposed to tuberculosis. [adapted from abstract]

Tuberculosis in Medical Doctors: A Study of Personal Experiences and Attitudes

The concurrent tuberculosis (TB) and HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa place all healthcare workers at increased risk of exposure to TB. This study explores personal experiences, attitudes and perceptions of medical doctors following treatment for TB within the healthcare system. [from abstract]

Reducing Needle Stick Injuries in Healthcare Occupations: An Integrative Review of the Literature

Needlestick injuries frequently occur among healthcare workers, introducing high risk of bloodborne pathogen infection for surgeons, assistants, and nurses. This systematic review aims to explore the impact of both educational training and safeguard interventions to reduce needlestick injuries. [from abstract]

Intention to Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) among Health Professionals in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Perspective

The aim of this study was to discover the use of voluntary counseling and testing among health professionals in Ethiopia using the theory of planned behavior to determine which factors play a significant role in healthworker use. [adapted from author]

Compliance of Health Care Workers with Hand Hygiene Practices: Independent Advantages of Overt and Covert Observers

This study used covert observers to determine health worker adherence to hand hygiene compliance for hospital infection control.

HIV and TB in Practice for Nurses: TB Infection Control

This issue covers why TB infection control is an important issue for nurses; how TB is spread; creating an enabling environment for TB infection control; and administrative, environmental and personal controls. [adapted from author]

Study of Status of Safe Injection Practice and Knowledge Regarding Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Baglung District, Western Nepal

This study was carried out to determine whether the selected government health facilities in Nepal satisfy the conditions for safe injections in terms of staff training, availability of sterile injectable equipment and their proper disposal after use; and to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in these health care facilities with regard to injection safety. [from abstract]

Needlestick Injuries in Dentistry

Needlestick injuries and other sharps-related injuries which expose health care professionals to bloodborne pathogens continue to be an important public health concern. This article presents comprehensive information on needlestick injuries (NSI), post exposure prophylaxis, precautions and suggestions for prevention of NSI in dentistry. [from abstract]

Improving Infection Prevention and Control in Ethiopia through Supportive Supervision of Health Facilities

This report outlines an intervention that utilized supportive supervision in 86 facilities around Ethiopia that aimed to: enable healthcare workers to practice new skills in infection prevention and control (IPC) following formal trainings; coach health care facility staff to improve their performance in order to meet recommended IPC standards; improve the skills of supervisors for independent program monitoring; integrate IPC into the routine health care supervision system; and monitor the changes in program performance as a result of these activities. [adapted from author]

Acceptance and Uptake of Voluntary HIV Testing among Healthcare Workers in a South African Public Hospital

The aim of this study is to determine factors associated with the acceptance and uptake of voluntary HIV testing among healthcare workers in a public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal. [from abstract]

Occupational Exposure to Blood-Borne or Body Fluid Pathogens among Medical Interns at Addington Hospital, Durban

Interns are a vulnerable group of healthcare workers, cited as having the highest incidence of accidental needle-stick injuries and splashes with blood or body fluids. This study compared the incidence of occupational exposure between first- and second-year interns in South Africa to estabilsh the severity of the problem. [adapted from abstract]

Cold Comfort for Healthcare Workers? Medico-Ethical Dilemmas Facing a Healthcare Worker after Occupational Exposure to HIV

This paper discusses the ethical and legal constraints on a healthcare worker who has been occupationally exposed to possible HIV infection in circumstances where the patient will not/is not in a position to give consent to be tested to establish his/her HIV status, which is a prerequisite for the healthworker to receive postexposure prophylaxis in South Africa. [adapted from abstract]

Biosafety Perspective of Clinical Laboratory Workers: A Profile of Pakistan

Although all occupational hazards are important, the risk of laboratory-associated infection in employees of clinical laboratories is greater than it is in many other occupations. This survey was conducted in Pakistan to assess the awareness of biosafety measures and the practices performed by laboratory technicians during their routine laboratory work. [adapted from introduction]