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Early Implementation of WHO Recommendations for the Retention of Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas

This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries – the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and South Africa – and provides a broader perspective in two regions – Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. [from abstract]

Child Status Index Training Manual

This manual provides guidance for community care workers and other wardens of orphans and other vulnerable children who intend to use the Child Status Index tool. [from abstract]

Nurses’ and Care Workers’ Experiences of Spiritual Needs in Residents with Dementia in Nursing Homes: A Qualitative Study

The aim of the study was to investigate nurses’ and care workers’ experiences of spiritual needs among residents with dementia in nursing homes. Nurses claim to practice holistic nursing. [from abstract]

Strengthening Malaria Service Delivery Through Supportive Supervision and Community Mobilization in an Endemic Indian Setting: An Evaluation of Nested Delivery

This paper tests the effectiveness of two service delivery models designed to promote recommended behaviors, including prompt treatment seeking for febrile illness, in Odisha India. The tested modules include supportive supervision of community health workers and community mobilization promoting appropriate health seeking. [from abstract]

Effectiveness of female community health volunteers in the detection and management of low-birth-weight in Nepal

Low birth weight (LBW) is a major risk factor for neonatal death. However, most neonates in low-income countries are not weighed at birth. This results in many LBW infants being overlooked. Female community health volunteers (FCHVs) in Nepal are non-health professionals who are living in local communities and have already worked in a field of reproductive and child health under the government of Nepal for more than 20 years. The effectiveness of involving FCHVs to detect LBW infants and to initiate prompt action for their care was studied in rural areas of Nepal. [from abstract]Amano S

Adventures in rural and remote health services innovation: the role of researcher as collaborator

The trend toward collaborations between researchers and stakeholders in rural/remote health services innovation has the potential to address these issues; researchers can play their part by creating and accepting opportunities for such collaboration. [from authors]

Central Malawi District Hospital Surgical Capacity Assessment

Presentation on assessment of surgical need, surgical personnel, infrastructure and supplies in Central Malawi. [adapted from author]

Integration of Oral Health into Primary Health Care System: Views of Primary Health Care Workers in Lagos State, Nigeria

The limited access to oral health care in developing countries can be greatly improved by integrating oral health into the Primary Health Care (PHC) system. This study was designed to assess the views of PHC workers on integrating oral health care into the PHC system. [from abstract]

On the Buses: a Mixed-Method Evaluation of the Impact of Free Bus Travel for Young People on the Public Health

To evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money. [from abstract]

Work Experience, Job-Fulfillment and Burnout among VMMC Providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

This analysis examines this issue of performance and attrition in [voluntary medical male circumcision] programs by looking descriptively at job-fulfillment and burnout. [from introduction]

Supervising Community Health Workers in Low-Income Countries – A Review of Impact and Implementation Issues

To determine the impact of supervision strategies used in low- and middle-income countries and discuss implementation and feasibility issues with a focus on [Community Health Workers]. [Adapted from abstract]

Community Health Care - Bringing Health Care at Your Door: Report of Side Event at 67th World Health Assembly

The side event held at the 67th World Health Assembly provided an opportunity to deliberate on integrated community health care (CHC) in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The session also explored effective policies and strategies that could be used to remove the obstacles to deliver quality health care and positioning community health workers (CHWs) as an integral part of local health teams.

Household Development Agent Training Curriculum

This comprehensive curriculum for Household Development Agents (specialized polyvalent community health workers (CHWs)), trained under a World Bank funded pilot, consists of 8 training units: Human Rights, Community Mobilization & Communication, Cholera, Family Planning, Diarrheal Disease, Vaccination, Reproductive Health, and Nutrition. These units contain standard and widely accepted information and protocols that have been adapted for the Haitian context.

As good as physicians: patient perceptions of physicians and non-physician clinicians in rural primary health centers in India

This study investigates patient views of physicians (Medical Officers) and NPCs in terms of patient satisfaction, perceived quality, and provider trust. [from abstract]

Early pregnancy detection by female community health volunteers in Nepal facilitated referral for appropriate reproductive health services

This evaluation assessed the success of a pilot program that trained [Female community health volunteers] in early pregnancy detection using urine pregnancy tests (UPTs), counseling, and referral to appropriate antenatal, safe abortion, or family planning services. [from abstract]

From Policy to Action: Implementing the Kenyan Community Strategy

This technical highlight provides a brief overview of Pathfinder’s experience implementing the Kenyan Community Strategy through the USAID-funded APHIAplus (AIDS, Population, and Health Integrated Assistance Plus) Nairobi-Coast project (2011-2014). [from abstract]

Community Health Workers for Universal Health-Care Coverage: From Fragmentation to Synergy

To achieve universal health coverage, health systems will have to reach into every community, including the poorest and hardest to access. Since Alma-Ata, inconsistent support of community health workers (CHWs) and failure to integrate them into the health system have impeded full realization of their potential contribution in the context of primary health care.

Successfully Providing Essential Newborn Care for Term and Premature Babies: A Midwife’s Perspective

During the three-and-a-half years of implementation, Ethiopia’s [Federal Ministry of Health] developed a new community health strategy for the Health Extension Program consisting of Primary Health Care Units (health centers and health posts) and the Health Development army. [adapted from abstract]

Household perceptions and their implications for enrolment in the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana

This paper identifies, ranks and compares perceptions of insured and uninsured households in Ghana on health care providers (quality of care, service delivery adequacy, staff attitudes), health insurance schemes (price, benefits and convenience) and community attributes (health ‘beliefs and attitudes’ and peer pressure). [from abstract]

Does the Design and Implementation of Proven Innovations for Delivering Basic Primary Health Care Services in Rural Communities Fit the Urban Setting: The Case of Ghana’s Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS)

This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. [from abstract]

Stakeholder Views on the Incorporation of Traditional Birth Attendants into the Formal Health Systems of Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Analysis of the HIFA2015 and CHILD2015 Email Discussion Forums

Task shifting is seen as a way to improve access to pregnancy and childbirth care. However, the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) within task shifting initiatives remains contested. The objective of this study was to explore stakeholder views and justifications regarding the incorporation of TBAs into formal health systems. [from abstract]

Developing Capacities of Community Health Workers in Sexual and Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health: A Mapping and Review of Training Resources

A mapping of training resource packages for [community health workers] was undertaken with documents retrieved online and from key informants. Materials were classified by health themes and analysed using agreed parameters. Ways forward were informed by a subsequent expert consultation. [from abstract]

mHealth Support Tools for Improving the Performance of Frontline Health Workers: An Inventory and Analytical Review

This report outlines the findings from a three-pronged approach that includes: 1. Establishing a database of existing mHealth tools related to FLHW performance and accountability; 2. Conducting a literature review on the evidence
base of using mHealth tools to improve FLHW performance and accountability; 3. Developing a framework to guide the adaptation of paper-based content into mobile-friendly content. [from summary]

Improving Malaria Knowledge and Practices in Rural Myanmar Through a Village Health Worker Intervention: A Cross-Sectional Study

The purpose of this paper is to compare the malaria knowledge level and health practices of individuals in SPH intervention areas to individuals without SPH intervention [from abstract]

Improving Health through the Social Quality Approach in 800 Communes in Madagascar

The social quality approach is a community-based approach for encouraging service recipients to get involved in the availability, use, and quality of health services. This report, based on Santenet2 project data, correlation analysis, and qualitative data collection, illustrates the implementation process, successes and essential components to the successful implementation of the social quality approach. [from executive summary]

Review of Generalist and Specialist Community Health Workers for Delivering Adolescent Health Services in Sub-Saharan Africa

This paper reviews the literature on generalist and specialist community health workers (CHWs) to assess their potential for strengthening the delivery of adolescent health services. [from abstract]

Meeting Community Health Worker Needs for Maternal Health Care Service Delivery Using Appropriate Mobile Technologies in Ethiopia

This project aimed to meet the technical needs of Health Extension Workers and midwives in Ethiopia for maternal health using appropriate mobile technologies tools. [from introduction]

Engaging People Living With HIV as Lay Counsellors in HIV Care and Treatment Services: Experiences in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

This document summarises the key components of the lay counsellors programme that have contributed to its success, such as careful recruitment practices and recognition of lay counsellors as valued members of health-care teams. Also highlighted are specific steps that support the use of people living with HIV as lay counsellors and parameters regarding how to monitor the impact of this work. [from summary]

Effect of Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program on Maternal and Newborn Health Care Practices in 101 Rural Districts: A Dose-Response Study

The national Health Extension Program aims to provide universal access to primary health care services through more than 34,000 government-salaried female health extension workers. This article reports the effect of the project’s community-based newborn survival interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices. [adapted from introduction]

Hand Hygiene Practices among Community Health Officers in Rivers State, Nigeria

Health care associated infections are most commonly transmitted by the hands of Health care workers and other hospital personnel. Therefore, this study investigated compliance with hand hygiene guidelines and methods of hand hygiene practice among community health officers in Rivers State Nigeria. [adapted from abstract]