Americas & Caribbean

Moving Toward Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage: A Review of Comprehensive Primary Health Care in Suriname

This study’s objective is to provide an overview of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) development and implementation in Suriname in peer-reviewed literature. [adapted from abstract]

Assessment of Provider Competence and Quality of Maternal/Newborn Care in Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

To obtain a snapshot of the maternal and newborn care provided by different types of maternal and child health providers in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to 1) better inform advocacy and programmatic strategies and interventions to improve the quality of those services in the region, and 2) determine the need for more rigorous study of the issues. [from abstract]

The Health Workforce in Latin America and the Caribbean An Analysis of Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay

This study intends to provide an update of the status of the human resources for health (HRH) subsystem in six countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)—Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay. The study’s discussion centers around five questions: how the health workforce is financed, how it is organized, how it is managed, how it is regulated, and how it performs. Further, the study strives to understand what role, if any, performance management policies and incentives play in these countries’ HRH subsystems.

Basic E-learning Course on Human Rights and Health

Disseminate the links between health and human rights and explain the international human rights instruments that protect the right to health and other related human rights. [from materials]

A Systematic Review of Nursing Research Priorities on Health System and Services in the Americas

To systematically review literature on priorities in nursing research on health systems and services in the Region of the Americas as a step toward developing a nursing research agenda that will advance the Regional Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. [from abstract]

Assessment of Human Resources for Health Programme Implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean Countries

The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. [from abstract]

The Invisible Economy and Gender Inequalities: The Importance of Measuring and Valuing Unpaid Work

Unpaid health and child care provided in the household, along with other activities that contribute to the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of members of a household, have a major impact on individual and public well-being, as well as on the human development potential of the countries. These economic activities, performed largely by women, take place outside the market and are therefore invisible in the economic statistics and national accounts systems of most countries. [from abstract]

The Consequences of Burnout Syndrome among Healthcare Professionals in Spain and Spanish Speaking Latin American Countries

The goal of this paper is to identify the frequency and intensity of the perception of adverse professional consequences and their association with burnout syndrome and occupational variables. [from abstract]

Small Group Effectiveness in a Caribbean Medical School’s Problem-Based Learning Sessions

The Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument was developed to provide objective information on the effectiveness of small groups. Student perception of small group effectiveness during the problem base learning (PBL) process has not been previously studied in Xavier University School of Medicine (Aruba, Kingdom of the Netherlands); hence, the present study was carried out. [from abstract]

How Much Will Health Coverage Cost? Future Health Spending Scenarios in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico

As Latin American countries seek to expand the coverage and benefits provided by their health systems under a global drive for universal health coverage (UHC), decisions taken today – whether by government or individuals – will have an impact tomorrow on public spending requirements. To understand the implications of these decisions and define needed policy reforms, this paper calculates long-term projections for public spending on health in three countries, analyzing different scenarios related to population, risk factors, labor market participation, and technological growth.

National Research for Health Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Moving Towards the Right Direction?

National Research for Health Systems (NRfHS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have shown growth and consolidation in the last few years. A structured, organized system will facilitate the development and implementation of strategies for research for health to grow and contribute towards people’s health and equity. [from abstract]

Impact of a Program to Improve Quality of Diabetes Care in the Caribbean

The aim of this research was to evaluate if the training on the use of the “Protocol for the Nutritional Management of Obesity, Diabetes and Hypertension in the Caribbean” improves the quality of care delivered to patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Jamaica, Guyana, Belize, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Suriname. [from abstract]

Field Guide for Implementation of the Strategy and Plan of Action for Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis in the Americas

This field guide aims to: Summarize the lessons learned during the first three years of
implementation of the Strategy and Plan of Action for the Elimination of
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis. And provide health authorities, program managers, and other health personnel with practical guidance on updating or developing plans for accelerated implementation of the Regional Strategy and Plan of Action. [adapted from introduction]

Strengthening the Capacity of Managers in Pharmaceutical Services Based on Primary Health Care (PHC) at Different Levels of the Health System

This is a case study which consists of describing the process of restructuring, developing and implementing the second version of the Virtual Course on Primary Health Care-based Pharmaceutical Services for managers (CVSERVFAPS-12). The ma
in objective is to strengthen the capacity of managers in pharmaceutical services, based on PHC at different levels of the health system, in order to support the restructuring and empowering of these services and, consequently, the health systems in the American region. [from abstract]

Road Map for Strengthening the Caribbean Health Workforce, 2012-2017

This road map proposes a five-year framework to guide policies for planning and managing the Caribbean workforce and education for enhancing the skills of that workforce. The thrust of the road map focuses on broadening primary health care access in the region and enhancing public health competencies, as well as strengthening the HRH planning and management capacity of the countries and the region. [from author]

Strengthening Health Systems in North and Central America: What Role for Migration?

Using a comparative case study, this report looks at health care services and human resources in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and the United States to identify constraints on health care capacity to explore how the effective management of migration across these countries might help meet the demand for health care services. Nursing personnel are the focus of the report. [from summary]

Human Resources for Public Health Research: A Latino Perspective

This presentation discusses the the characteristics of public health research in Latin America which are poorly known in terms of scale, subjects of study, sources of funding and human resources for development. [adapted from author]

Toward the Construction of Health Workforce Metrics for Latin America and the Caribbean

This paper describes an initiative to create a framework to analyze the field of human resources for health (HRH) in Latin America and the Caribbean, more specifically the development of a set of metrics and indicators to be used in monitoring HRH policies in the region. [adapted from author]

Staffing in Maternity Units: Getting the Right People in the Right Place at the Right Time

This report considers the available evidence about the relationship between staffing levels and deployment practices and safety of care for mothers and babies. In so doing, the report considers different staffing models and approaches.

Public Health Workforce in Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of Education and Labor in 17 Countries

This document addresses the field of public health education and the conditions in which public health personnel is integrated into the labor market. One of the purposes of the report is to investigate the characteristics of public health educational programs and their relation to the needs of national health systems. [from author]

Mainstreaming Gender in the Health Sector: Prevention of Gender-Based Violence and Male Involvement in Reproductive Health

This report oulines the lessons learned from a program designed to to build the capacity of staff in health care centers and hospitals to effectively screen for intra-family violence and refer victims to appropriate services, and to better educate and involve men in sexual and reproductive health through pilot activities in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua. [adapted from author]

Handbook for Measuring and Monitoring: Indicators of the Regional Goals for Human Resources for Health

As a self-contained technical instruction manual, this handbook is intended to provide a practical tool to guide the identification and definition of initial baseline data to be collected in order to provide a descriptive profile of countries’ human resources for health to facilitate monitoring their progress towards achieving their HRH goals over time. [from author]

Implementation of Performance Support Approaches in Central America and Uganda

The Capacity Project worked with governments and partners in Central America and Uganda to test approaches for strengthening supervision systems in the health sector, as one component of the Project’s workforce performance support strengthening. [from summary]

Effectiveness of a Training-of-Trainers Model in a HIV Counseling and Testing Program in the Caribbean Region

This study evaluates the effectiveness and sustainability of a voluntary counseling and testing training program based on a training-of-trainers model. [adapted from abstract]

Regional Goals for Human Resources for Health 2007 - 2015

This document outlines the issues for human resources for health in the Americas and what the Pan American Health Organization resolves should be done to address them.

Regional Core Health Data Initiative: Table Generator System

This database can be used to produce tables of health indicator data according to year, country within the Americas, and indicator type. Human Resources for Health indicators are included in the “Resources, services, and coverage” section. The available data is from 1995-2007.

Distance Education in Health and Environmental Health: an Option - Now Let's Strengthen Its Viability

The experience of the Training in Health and Environmental Health in the Caribbean Community project has demonstrated that distance education techniques is an effective medium through which participants in more than eleven countries can be brought together to be educated on topics that are significant to both the region and to individual countries. This paper examines the means through which individuals are educated and meaningful communication among them facilitated.

Barriers to Training Family Physicians in the Caribbean: Distance Education as a Promising Prescription

The peculiarities of the scattered small states of the Caribbean region call for a model of training practitioners that is effective, relevant and sustainable. Distance education (DE) as an approach offers advantages that meet some of the challenges inherent in training family physicians for the region. This paper examines some of these challenges and shows where DE is being used to structure delivery of the programme. In particular, the need for context-specific training, managing time strictures and the cost issues of training are discussed. [from abstract]

Managed Migration: The Caribbean Approach to Addressing Nursing Services Capacity

This article intends to provide a contextual analysis of the Caribbean region with respect to forces shaping the current and emerging nursing workforce picture in the region; discuss country-specific case(s) within the Caribbean; and describe the Managed Migration Program as a potential framework for addressing regional and global nurse migration issues. [from abstract]

Salud Pública: Objeto de Conocimiento, Prácticas y Formación; Public Health: Knowledge, Practice and Training

This paper presents a discussion regarding public health’s main challenges in Latin America: knowledge of it, professional practice and training human resources. Emphasis is placed on three components: knowledge of public health, social practice and human resources training. [from abstract]