Evaluations & Reviews

Review of Codes and Protocols for the Migration of Health Workers

This is a review of current multi-lateral agreements, codes of practice, bilateral agreements, regional agreements, and strategies and position statements that govern the migration of health workers from ESA (East and Southern African) countries. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current situation in ESA. [from executive summary]

Provider Selection of Evidence-Based Contraception Guidelines in Service Provision: a Study in India, Peru, and Rwanda

This study evaluated biases in guideline untilization of evidence-based practice concerning contraception perscription. It was found that in India, Peru, and Rwanda, health care providers underutilize evidence-based practice guidelines as they prescribe contraceptives. This article ends with recommendations for providers to most effectively utilize evidence-based practice. [adapted from abstract]

Capacity Planning in Health Care: a Review of the International Experience

In this policy brief, we review approaches to capacity planning, a crucial component of health care governance. By concentrating on a diverse selection of countries, we aim to show a range of approaches to health care financing and organization, since both of these factors have an impact on approaches to capacity planning. [adapted from introduction]

Financial Incentives, Healthcare Providers and Quality Improvements: a Review of the Evidence

This study reviews the healthcare literature that examines the effect of financial incentives on the behaviour of healthcare organisations and individuals with respect to the quality of care they deliver to consumers. Its purpose is to provide guidance to policy-makers in government and decision-makers in the private sector in their efforts to improve quality of care through payment reforms. [adapted from summary]

Enhanced Access to Reproductive Health and Family Planning

This report details the impact of Pathfinder Interational’s community-based approach to reproductive health and family planning in Ethiopia.

Medical Dialogue: How to Kick-Start a Joint AIDS Response by Health Workers and Traditional Healers

This publication provides information on the medical dialogue, a method formulated to address the recommendation for collaboration between biomedical practitioners and traditional healers and the integration of traditional medicine into public health care to respond to AIDS. [adapted from author]

Strengthening Management in Low-Income Countries: Lessons from Uganda: a Case Study on Management of Health Services Delivery

In an initiative to collate experiences on management development in low resource settings, WHO carried out case studies to explore management development approaches and how these impacted managerial and service delivery performance. [adapted from author]

Linking Family Planning with Postabortion Services in Egypt: Testing the Feasibility, Acceptability and Effectiveness of Two Models of Integration

This research study was undertaken to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of two models of integrating family planning services with postabortion services.

Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: Current Evidence and Future Directions

This guide offers policymakers and researchers the latest evidence on private-provider networks and franchises, lessons learned in the field, and policy recommendations on how to mobilize private-provider networks and health franchises to help address reproductive health care needs in developing countries. [adapted from publisher]

Past, Present and Future: Experiences and Lessons from Telehealth Projects

This article focuses on the field of telemedicine in developing countries and its role in improving health, using examples from the experience of the International Development Resource Centre. [adapted from publisher]

Integrating Family Planning Services into Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers in Kenya: Operations Research Results

Providing contraceptive services at VCT centers is an opportunity to prevent unintended pregnancies among clients whose needs may not be met through traditional family planning services. Operations research in Kenya suggests that integrating family planning into VCT services is feasible and acceptable. An integration intervention improved providers’ discussions about fertility desires and contraceptive methods with clients, without compromising the length of client-provider interaction or client waiting time.

Teamwork in Healthcare: Promoting Effective Teamwork in Healthcare in Canada

A healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care, enhance patient safety, and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. To support the movement to make teamwork a reality, this report was commissioned to outline the characteristics of an effective team, how to measure its effectiveness, what interventions have been successful in implementing and sustaining teamwork in healthcare, lessons from other settings and countries, and the barriers to implementation in Canada. [adapted from executive summary]

India Local Initiatives Program: A Model for Expanding Reproductive and Child Health Services

The India Local Initiatives Program adapted a model used in Indonesia and Bangladesh to implement the government’s reproductive and child health strategy. From 1999 to 2003, three Indian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) provided services for 784,000 people in four northern states. This model proved to be a suitable platform upon which to build health-care service delivery and create behavioral change, and the NGOs quickly found ways to sustain and expand services. [from abstract]

Options and Challenges for Converging HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in India: Findings from an Assessment in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh

The report aims to share findings from an assessment to explore how access to critical services for populations at risk of HIV and unintended pregnancy can be strengthened by converging HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Aids Control Programme (NACP). The report provides information on the demand and opportunities for and the challenges of implementing HIV and SRH convergence in four states

South African Health Review 2007

This edition focuses on the role of the private sector, a part of the health system that has not previously been accorded extensive coverage in the SAHR. The contrast between the public and private sectors remains stark in many facets and the deepening inequity is cause for profound concern. The significance of the private sector cannot be underestimated both with regard to its potential contribution to the health and well-being of this country’s people, as well as its role in drawing resources (financial and human) from the public sector.

Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study Investigating the Career Choices of School Leavers in Relation to Nursing and What Influences Those Choices

The nurse is the single most important frontline health worker. Without nurses the clinics, community health centres and hospitals cannot function. It is therefore critical that nurse education and the supply of nurses form an integral part of transformation of health services in South Africa. According to the Department of Health there is a need to significantly increase the production of all categories of nurses in order to fulfil the requirements of South Africa. Attracting new recruits to the profession is an integral part of increasing production. It is for this reason that a study was undertaken to assess the attitudes of school leavers towards taking up nursing as a profession, and the reasons for these attitudes.

Moving Towards Best Practice: Documenting and Learning from Existing Community Health Care Worker Programmes

The objectives of the study were to assess the extent to which CHW deployment has been addressing important health priorities; document success stories and lessons, identify champions; understand the range of ways that CHW programmes have evolved in South Africa and compile recommendations and lessons learned to improve practice. [from executive summary]

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Health Care Providers toward HIV-Positive Patients in Tanzania

This study conducted structured interviews with 204 health care providers in three public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to evaluate the prevalence of stigma and discrimination among providers toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and the factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Information on HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, perceived risk of infection, willingness to care, and availability of protective gear was also obtained. [from executive summary]

Costs and Benefits of Health Worker Migration from East and Southern Africa (ESA): a Literature Review

The migration of health professionals from developing countries in general, and sub-Saharan African countries in particular, has become the subject of considerable theoretical and case study research attention in international migration and human resources for health (HRH) literature. This report is a review of all available literature on the costs and benefits of the migration of health workers from East and Southern African (ESA) countries to developed nations. [from executive summary]

Community Health Workers: a Review of Concepts, Practice and Policy Concerns

In this paper we attempt to provide an overview of the concepts and practice of community health workers (CHWs) from across a range of (developing and developed) countries, and draw some insights into policy challenges that remain in designing effective CHW schemes, particularly in the Indian context. In the subsequent sections, we provide a review of the various ways in which community health workers have been deployed in different settings. [from introduction]

Impact of Home-Based Management of Malaria on Health Outcomes in Africa: a Systematic Review of the Evidence

Home-based management of malaria (HMM) is promoted as a major strategy to improve prompt delivery of effective malaria treatment in Africa. The published literature was searched for studies that evaluated the health impact of community- and home-based treatment for malaria in Africa. [from abstract]

Assessing the Impact of Educational Intervention for Improving Management of Malaria and Other Childhood Illnesses in Kibaha District Tanzania

The study was carried out to evaluate short term effects of one to one educational intervention approach, conducted with 40 drug sellers in order to improve the private sector’s practices, compliance and performance in using the national treatment guidelines for malaria and other common childhood (diarrhoea, acute respiratory tract infection-ARI) illnesses in Kibaha district-Tanzania. [from abstract]

Assessment of Effects of Pre and Post-Training Programme for Healthcare Professionals about Breastfeeding

This retrospective study assessed the effects of pre- and post-training programme for healthcare professionals about breastfeeding. [from abstract]

Human Resources for Health Situation in Mozambique

This report reviews the literature, published and unpublished, available on HRH in Mozambique. It also carries out some secondary data analysis and presents data from interviews and focus group discussions with key informers and stakeholders. The study of the human resources situation in Mozambique followed a frame of reference that addressed key issues related to the context, professional policies, labour market, management of human resources, and performance and coping. [from executive summary]

Seeing, Thinking and Acting against Malaria: a New Approach to Health Worker Training in Rura Gambia

This article evaluates a malaria in-service training for community health nurses working at a village level. The program included a computer-based training package, the first of its kind for health professionals in Gambia. [adapted from abstract]

Communities' Awareness, Perception and Participation in the Community-Based Medical Education of the University of Maiduguri

The overall objective of community-based medical education (CBME) is to produce highly qualified doctors in sufficient numbers to meet the health needs of the nation at community and hospital levels. In the current program, medical students undertake an eight-week residential posting in their final year. The objective of this study was to assess the communities’ awareness, perception and participation in the CBME program. [adapted from introduction]

Effectiveness of a Training Programme for Primary Care Physicians Directed at the Enhancement of their Psychiatric Knowledge in Saudi Arabia

A substantial number of patients with psychiatric disorders consult primary care physicians for comprehensive health care; however, the diagnosis and effective treatment of psychiatric disorders are deficient in primary health care. The aim of this intervention study is to assess the pre- and post-psychiatric training knowledge of primary care physicians. [from abstract]

Acting Now to Overcome Tanzania's Greatest Health Challenge: Addressing the Gap in Human Resources for Health

The focus of McKinsey’s research effort is on the HRH constraint, faced by many developing countries, in absorbing development aid and scaling up urgently needed health programs. HRH in this context is defined as the health workers at the front line of healthcare service delivery. The field work necessary to diagnose the problem and identify possible solutions has been initiated in Tanzania. We believe these findings, accounting for certain differences, will be broadly applicable to several developing countries. [from author]

Improving Health Worker Performance: in Search of Promising Practices

This report was commissioned to describe experiences and to provide lessons learnt with respect to interventions to retain staff and improve their productivity, competence and responsiveness. [from summary]

Taking the Next Step: Options and Support for a Pan-Canadian, Multi-Professional HHR Planning Mechanism

This study proposes potential options for creating a pan-Canadian HHR planning mechanism or mechanisms to better serve the process of coordinated HHR planning across jurisdictions and among multiple professions. The second goal is to assess the current level of support among both government actors at the federal, provincial and territorial levels and stakeholder organizations for creating a pan-Canadian HHR planning. The study examines the current HHR planning infrastructure in the country, recent international developments in HHR planning and the attitudes of key informants in governmental and non-governmental communities.