The Role of Social Service Workforce Development in Care Reforms

This working paper explores the topic of social service workforce strengthening as it relates to child care reform. It is intended to be a useful resource for reform efforts and a practical and accessible overview for use by policy-makers, practitioners, and service providers in contexts that are either considering the implications of care reforms for their social service workforce or are already engaged in the process. The paper illustrates key issues by drawing on the experiences of Indonesia, Moldova, and Rwanda, three countries in the process of reform. [from

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development: Country Summary Report for Indonesia

Indonesia, a low-middle income country of around 242 million people, has made impressive gains in health over the past few decades, notably in increased life expectancy and reduced infant and child mortality rates. There has been less progress in improving maternal mortality and malnutrition. [from abstract]

Challenges to the Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) at Community Health Centres in West Java Province, Indonesia

The integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) is a comprehensive approach to child health, which has been adopted in Indonesia since 1997. This study aims to provide an overview of IMCI implementation at community health centres (puskesmas) in West Java province, Indonesia.[from abstract]

Note: Resource is on 161-170.

The Production, Distribution, and Performance of Physicians, Nurses, and Midwives in Indonesia: An Update

Indonesia launched the national health insurance program - Jaminan Kesehatan National (JKN) - on January 1, 2014, and aims to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by 2019. Achieving UHC means not only increasing the number of people covered but also expanding the benefits package and ensuring financial protection. Although the JKN benefits package is comprehensive, a key challenge related to the capacity to deliver the promised services is ensuring the availability, distribution, and quality of human resources for health (HRH). [from abstract]

Human Resource Development for Health in Indonesia: Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

The development of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is one of the keys to achieving The Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Providing and ensuring the best health care service in every region of Indonesia has long been a major concern. Several challenges faced by HRH development are a shortage of professionals, uneven distribution of professionals between regions, a variety of settings (urban and rural), and management of the health workforce under a
decentralization system. This paper aims to assess the HRH progress made toward achieving the health-related MDGs.

Health Service from Catchment Area Perspective: An Analysis of System

Indonesia is one of the countries in the world which has a decentralized model of government. The decentralization in the form of regional autonomy aims to improve the public welfare through public services. The services, especially the health service depends much on the wide area and also the geographical condition of the regional. Thus, it is necessary to do an analysis of systems towards the health service from the catchment area perspectives to solve the present and future problems. [adapted from abstract]

Understanding the Implementation of Community Case Management of Childhood Illness in Indonesia: Families’ and Primary Health Care Workers’ Perspectives

Indonesia is striving to achieve the Millennium Development Goal 4 target of less than 23 infant deaths per 1000 live births by 2015. In order to reach this target, a community case management (CCM) model, was introduced by the American funded Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) and the Indonesian Ministry of Health (MoH) in 2011. Little is known about how CCM has been delivered and there is no research that examines the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of CCM in Indonesia.

Context-specific, Evidence-Based Planning for Scale-Up of Family Planning Services to Increase Progress to MDG 5: Health Systems Research

Local health planners are in a prime position to devise feasible context-specific activities to overcome
constraints and increase met need for family planning to accelerate progress towards MDG 5. [from abstract]

Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in Indonesia: Saving Lives, Saving the Future. Chapter Five: Quality of Care

Quality of care is at the heart of any health care program, and yet it is defined in different ways and is difficult to measure. It is determined not only by the capabilities of health facilities and health providers but also by many other variables. Even among formal research studies, the variables measured differ from study to study. [from introduction]

Leadership Practices of Head Nurses as Expected and Perceived by Staff Nurses in Public Hospitals in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

This study aimed to identify the levels of leadership practices among head nurses as expected and perceived by staff nurses and to compare the differences between expectation and perception of staff nurses toward leadership practices of head nurses in public hospitals of Banda Aceh, Indonesia. [from abstract]

Factors Associated to Referral of Tuberculosis Suspects by Private Practitioners to Community Health Centers in Bali Province, Indonesia

The contrast between the low proportion of tuberculosis (TB) suspects referred from private practitioners in Bali province and the high volume of TB suspects seeking care at private practices suggests problems with TB suspect referral from private practitioners to the public health sector. This study aimed to identify key factors associated with the referral of TB suspects by private practitioners. [from abstract]

Why Do Some Women Still Prefer Traditional Birth Attendants and Home Delivery? A Qualitative Study on Delivery Care Services in West Java Province, Indonesia

This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. [from abstract]

Strengthening Health Management and Leadership at the District Level: What Can We Learn from High Performing Districts in the West Java Province of Indonesia?

This study examines the performance of district health managers in high and low performing districts in an attempt to understand whether, and the extent to which, they affect the performance of their district health services. [from author]

Human Resources for Health in Maternal, Neonatal and Reproductive Health: a Profile of Indonesia

This profile summarises the available information on the cadres working at community level in Indonesia; their diversity, distribution, supervisory structures, education and training, as well as the policy and regulations that govern their practice. [from summary]

New Insights into the Provision of Health Services in Indonesia: A Health Workforce Study

This study seeks to contribute to the government of Indonesia’s broader health system assessment by answering key health workforce questions. It examines changes in the supply and quality of health service providers and practitioners and links those changes with past and ongoing reforms. [from author]

Toolkit: Community Empowerment in MNH Towards the Alert Village (Desa Siaga)

The toolkit describes a process of implementing community empowerment in maternal and neonate health (MNH) and each step of the process, including guidelines and training manuals for the implementation process. The aim of this toolkit is to provide an example of possible best practice in community mobilisation to compliment medical based initiatives to reduce maternal death. [adapted from author]

Desa Siaga Cost Analysis

The term “Desa Siaga” describes the concept of community members owning their own resources and capacities for preventing and overcoming their own health problems, health emergencies and disasters based on mutual support and in a spirit of togetherness. This cost analysis provides additional information for all stakeholders contributing to informed decision making regarding DS implementation and this from an economic perspective. [from executive summary]

Hospital Management Training: New Ways to Improve Services in Indonesia: a Text Book and Guide

The quality of health services is influenced by the technical and managerial skills of the hospital team. This training curriculum aims to improve the management skills of the hospital teams by focusing on behavioral change and institutionalizing of the culture of quality improvement. [from foreword]

Recent Changes in Human Resources for Health at the District Level in Indonesia: Evidence from Three Districts in Java

This study reportw changes between 2006 and 2008 in numbers and employment status of health staff in three districts of Indonesia following the central government decision to offer doctors, nurses and midwives on contract the chance to convert to permanent civil service status. [adapted from abstract]

My Work as a Midwife

This 2:21 video introduces Ade Yanarsih’s work and challenges as a local health worker and community midwife in Kampung Cirendeng, Indonesia.

Assessment of the Health Management Information Systems in Select Areas of Aceh Province

This assessment evaluates a health service mangement systems project undertaken in the Aceh province after the 2004 earthquakea and tsunami. The project implemented information systems for hospitals and primary care, and this evaluation details the lessons learned and challenges from health workers as well as the short term impact the systems have had on health service delivery processes.

WISN: a Workforce Planning Tool with Unexpected Motivational Benefits

In Indonesia, a bottom-up workforce planning tool used with health workers directly has changed practice, realigned health workers’ roles, and increased motivation among staff. It shows how effective empowerment can be in the workplace. Workload Indicators of Staffing Need, or WISN, is straightforward and easily applied. [from author]

WISN Toolkit: Toolkit for Implementing Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) to Improve Health Workforce Planning and Management in Decentralized Health Systems

The Toolkit is adapted from the WHO WISN Manual. WISN has traditionally been in a top down approach with limited success, particularly when applying it within the context of a decentralized government system. It was recognized that a more innovative approach was required to implement the methodology successfully at decentralized levels. [from author]

Sustainable Scaling Up of Good Quality Health Worker Education for Tuberculosis Control in Indonesia: a Case Study

This article describes a systematic process to develop and implement two strategic action plans focussing on competence development based on specific job descriptions. The approach was a change from only focussing on training, to a broader, long term approach to human resource development for comprehensive TB control. [adapted from abstract]

Private Sector Health Care in Indonesia

This report presents the consolidated findings from the desk review and the in-country assessment, as well as recommendations for interventions that could strengthen the role private health care providers can play in achieving health sector objectives. [from summary]

Cross-Country Review of Strategies of the German Development Cooperation to Strengthen Human Resources

Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries: Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania, have translated such policies into action. [from abstract]

Level and Determinants of Incentives for Village Midwives in Indonesia

Since the early 1990s Indonesia has attempted to increase the level of skilled attendance at birth by placing rural midwives in every village in an effort to reduce persistently high levels of maternal mortality. Yet evidence suggests that there remains insufficient incentive to ensure an equal distribution across areas while the poor in all areas continue to access skilled attendance much less than those in richer groups.

Human Resources for Health at the District Level in Indonesia: the Smoke and Mirrors of Decentralization

The objective of this article is to determine the stock of human resources for health in 15 districts, their service status and primary place of work. It also assesses the effect of decentralization on management of human resources and the implications for the future. [from abstract]

Skilled Delivery Care in Indonesia

Care for most women before, during and after delivery can be provided within a well equipped primary care setting. Since the 1980s Indonesia has attempted to improve women’s access to maternal health care by assigning professional midwives to each village. Despite an increase in the number of midwives, maternal mortality remains high compared to other countries with similar Gross Domestic Product per capita. [from introduction]

Supportive Supervision to Sustain Health Worker Capacity in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatera

This brief describes PATH’s project to implement supportive supervision techniques to improve health worker training in Indonesia.