Maternal & Child Health

A Scoping Review of Training and Deployment Policies for Human Resources for Health for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Rural Africa

Most African countries are facing a human resources for health (HRH) crisis, lacking the required workforce to deliver basic health care, including care for mothers and children. To address the HRH challenges, evidence-based deployment and training policies are required. However, the resources available to country-level policy makers to create such
policies are limited. To inform future HRH planning, a scoping review was conducted to identify the type, extent, and quality of evidence that exists on HRH policies for rural MNCH in Africa. [from abstract]

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development: Country Summary Report for Indonesia

Indonesia, a low-middle income country of around 242 million people, has made impressive gains in health over the past few decades, notably in increased life expectancy and reduced infant and child mortality rates. There has been less progress in improving maternal mortality and malnutrition. [from abstract]

Overcoming Access Barriers to Health Services Through Membership-Based Microfinance Organizations: A Review of Evidence from South Asia

It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence
published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. [from abstract]

Challenges to the Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) at Community Health Centres in West Java Province, Indonesia

The integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) is a comprehensive approach to child health, which has been adopted in Indonesia since 1997. This study aims to provide an overview of IMCI implementation at community health centres (puskesmas) in West Java province, Indonesia.[from abstract]

Note: Resource is on 161-170.

Against the Odds: Mozambique's Gains in Primary Health Care

Despite numerous persistent challenges – including low quality of care, continuing inequalities and the substantial impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic – Mozambique provides important lessons to other countries aiming to scale up health provision rapidly in a post-conflict setting. These particularly include the importance of focusing on distance and education as barriers to access, using innovative and low-cost human-resource policies to scale up health personnel quickly, and of moving towards more coordinated systems of aid disbursement. [from abstract]

Pathways to Progress: A Multi-Level Approach to Strengthening Health Systems

This report synthesises findings from five country case studies from the health dimension of this project, which focus
on maternal and child health (MCH) (Mozambique,Nepal, Rwanda) and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)(Cambodia, Sierra Leone). MCH was selected given its centrality in two of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and its ability to act as a proxy for strengthened health systems.

Getting Healthier Around the World: Information and Communication Technologies for Child Health and Development

To celebrate Universal Children’s Day 2013, this report was commissioned by Sesame Workshop to achieve two objectives: (1) to explore current and future opportunities in the use of mobile phones and other relevant information and communications technologies (ICTs) for improving the health and development of young children as investments for a better future, and (2) to provide guidance and recommendations for partnerships, institutions or organizations interested in contributing to this field. [from executive summary]

A Rights and Equity-Based “Platform and Action Cycle” to advance Child Health and Well Being by Fulfilling the Rights of Children

The objective of this TAT [Think and Action Tank] initiative was to synthesize existing knowledge and experience with child rights, health equity and social justice into a conceptual and operational framework and tool to translate the principles and norms of human and child rights, health equity, and social justice into child health practice. [from executive summary]

Training for PEPFAR OVC Survey Data Collectors

Data collectors implementing the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) survey tools must be trained to a high standard. To enable this, MEASURE Evaluation has developed a training manual and materials for data collectors. Groups wanting to implement the OVC survey tools will need to adapt this training manual and materials to reflect the aims and design of the specific study. [from introduction]

Hidden in Plain Sight: A Statistical Analysis of Violence Against Children

While acknowledging these limitations, this report makes use of available evidence to describe what is currently known about global patterns of violence against children, using data compiled from a selection of sources . The analyses focus primarily on forms of interpersonal violence, defined as violent acts inflicted on children by another individual or a small group. [from introduction]

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Early Infant Feeding Practices in Three African Countries: The PROMISE-EBF Trial Promoting Exclusive Breastfeeding By Peer Counsellors

Immediate and exclusive initiation of breastfeeding after delivery have been associated with better neonatal survival and child health and are recommended by the WHO. We report impact on early infant feeding practices from the PROMISE-EBF trial. [from abstract]

Bridging the Policy-Implementation Gap in Federal Health Systems: Lessons From The Nigerian Experience

The Partnership for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria - Maternal, Newborn and Child Health initiative supports efforts by the government of Nigeria to bridge primary health care (PHC) policies and services at three levels of government: federal, state and local. The paper suggests that understandings informed by complexity theory and complex adaptive systems have been helpful in shaping policy and programme design across these levels. [from abstract]

Factors Affecting the Performance of Community Health Workers in India: a Multi-Stakeholder Perspective

Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. [from abstract]

International Human Rights Bodies on Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion - Part 2

This publication, which contains four different parts and was updated in June 2014, presents human rights agreements, treaties and policies that address maternal mortality, unwanted pregnancy and abortion as they relate to global reproductive rights work. Part 2: Statements from regional treaties, human rights commissions, Special Rapporteurs, and other intergovernmental bodies.

International Human Rights Bodies on Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion - Part 1

This publication, which contains four different parts and was updated in June 2014, presents human rights agreements, treaties and policies that address maternal mortality, unwanted pregnancy and abortion as they relate to global reproductive rights work. Part 1: Statements under UN human rights treaties and from treaty monitoring committees, Special Rapporteurs, regional human rights courts and commissions.

International Human Rights Bodies on Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion - Part 3

This publication, which contains four different parts and was updated in June 2014, presents human rights agreements, treaties and policies that address maternal mortality, unwanted pregnancy and abortion as they relate to global reproductive rights work. Part 3: Country-Specific Treaty Monitoring Committee Concluding Observations, Universal Periodic Review Working Group recommendations, and recommendations by Special Rapporteurs, commissions, and courtsCountries A-L.

Influence of Background Factors on Health Outcome and Main Sources of Maternal Health Information Among Rural Women of Reproductive Age: A Case of Bar B Sub-Location In Kenya

Accessing maternal health information by the women can easily make community members
make their own informed decisions that can lead to improving their health. Women are usually
disadvantaged as far as accessing health information is concerned. It is against this background
that this study is therefore concerned with studying the sources of maternal health information
amongst the rural women of reproductive age in. [from abstract]

Establishing Sustainable Performance-Based Incentive Schemes: Views of Rural Health Workers from Qualitative Research in Three Sub-Saharan African Countries

Performance-based incentives (PBIs) are currently receiving attention as a strategy for improving the quality of care that health providers deliver. Experiences from several African countries have shown that PBIs can trigger improvements, particularly in the area of maternal and neonatal health. The involvement of health workers in deciding how their performance should be measured is recommended. Only limited information is available about how such schemes can be made sustainable. [from introduction]

Female Community Health Volunteers Service Utilization for Childhood Illness-Improving Quality of Health Services Only is Not Enough: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mid-Western Region, Nepal

Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) are considered service providers for major health problems at the community level in Nepal. However, few studies have been conducted about the roles of FCHVs from the users’perspective. This study sought to examine the current status of FCHV service utilization and identify the determinants of caregivers’utilization of FCHVs’health services in the mid-western region of Nepal. [from abstract]

The Correlation of Health Spending and Infant Mortality Rate in Asian Countries

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is one of the most vital health indicators. A number of factors impact and
influence IMR. One of the most important ones could be public health spending. Health spending however is not
uniform throughout Asia and varies from region to region. [from abstract]

The Value of Building Health Promotion Capacities within Communities: Evidence From A Maternal Health Intervention in Guinea

This article presents results from a study that explored the association between community capacity for maternal health promotion and women’s use of preventive and curative maternal health services. Implemented in the Republic of Guinea, the intervention aimed to build the capacity of community-level committees to heighten awareness about maternal health risks and to promote use of professional maternal health services throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Data were collected through a population-based survey. [from abstract]

Understanding the Implementation of Community Case Management of Childhood Illness in Indonesia: Families’ and Primary Health Care Workers’ Perspectives

Indonesia is striving to achieve the Millennium Development Goal 4 target of less than 23 infant deaths per 1000 live births by 2015. In order to reach this target, a community case management (CCM) model, was introduced by the American funded Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) and the Indonesian Ministry of Health (MoH) in 2011. Little is known about how CCM has been delivered and there is no research that examines the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of CCM in Indonesia.

Can Vouchers Deliver? An Evaluation of Subsidies for Maternal Health Care in Cambodia

This paper will evaluate the effect of vouchers for maternity care in public health-care facilities on the utilization of maternal health-care services in Cambodia. The study involved data from the 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey, which covered births between 2005 and 2010. The effect of voucher schemes, first implemented in 2007, on the utilization of maternal health-care services was quantified using a difference-in-differences method that compared changes in utilization in districts with voucher schemes with changes in districts without them.[adapted from abstract]

Effects of Health-System Strengthening on Under-5, Infant, and Neonatal Mortality: 11-year Provincial-Level Time-Series Analyses in Mozambique

Knowledge of the relation between health-system factors and child mortality could help to inform health policy in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to quantify modifiable health-system factors and their relation with provincial-level heterogeneity in under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality over time in Mozambique. [from abstract]

Who Gives Birth in Private Facilities in Asia? A Look at Six Countries

As Asia has shown strong increases in institutional coverage of delivery care in the last decade, we will examine trends in six Asian countries. We hypothesize that if the private sector competes for clients based on perceived quality, their clientele will be wealthier, more educated and live in an area where there are enough health facilities to allow for competition. [from abstract]

Expansion in the Private Sector Provision of Institutional Delivery Services and Horizontal Equity: Evidence from Nepal and Bangladesh

One strategic approach to increase the use of appropriate maternal healthcare services is to encourage the expansion of the role of the private sector. However, critics of such an approach argue that increasing the role of the private sector will lead to increased inequity in the use of maternal healthcare services. This article explores this issue in two South Asian countries that have traditionally had high rates of maternal mortality—Nepal and Bangladesh. [from abstract]

A Decade of Determination and Dedication: Improving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Ethiopia

Ethiopia has made tremendous progress in providing health services to its large (87 million), and largely rural (83%), population. This is reflected in significant improvements in many maternal and child health indicators over the past ten years, including roughly a halving of infant and under-five mortality and an almost five-fold increase in the modern method contraceptive prevalence rate. At the heart of this expansion and its success is the health worker. [from introduction]

Fulfilling the Health Agenda for Women and Children: The 2014 Report

This report includes an updated, detailed profile for each of the 75 Countdown countries, which together account for more than 95% of the global burden of maternal, newborn and child death. The report shows that progress has been impressive in some areas, but it also highlights the vast areas of unfinished business that must be prioritized in the post-2015 framework. [adapted from introduction]

Reshaping Maternal Services in Nigeria: Any Need for Spiritual Care?

High maternal and perinatal mortalities occur from deliveries conducted in prayer houses in Nigeria. This study therefore seeks to determine the perception of booked antenatal
patients on spiritual care during pregnancy and their desire for such within hospital setting. [adapted from abstract]

Barriers to Accessing Health Care in Nigeria: Implications for Child Survival

There has not been a systematic attempt to examine the effects of barriers to health care on under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study is designed to address this knowledge gap. [from abstract]