Maternal & Child Health

Priority Service Provision Under Decentralization: a Case Study of Maternal and Child Health in Uganda

In 1993, Uganda began decentralization of its health care sector to the district and subdistrict levels. Its objectives were to increase local revenue for health service provision, in part through user fees; involve the consumers in the management of their health care services; and integrate all providers, including non-governmental organizations, missions, and non-traditional providers, into the care delivery system. The increased revenues and consumer participation was expected to improve quality and increase utilization of services. With a focus on maternal and child health (MCH) services, this study used statistical data and interviews with local health administrators and physicians to assess how the reform policies have been implemented and how they have impacted MCH service provision and utilization.

Private Providers: a Vast Untapped Resource to Improve Women's Health

Networks of private providers can be highly effective in reaching women with Family Planning/Reproductive Health (FP/RH) services Advantages: service delivery points are already in place, often financially sustainable, and have excess capacity. Private midwives provide 46% of all contraceptive use in Indonesia. A “linking organization” is key to link providers, identify incentives, develop a plan to meet service objectives and broker training, supplies, quality, and outreach to customers. [author’s description]

Compliance, Workload, and the Cost of Using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Algorithm in Niger

This study examines the relationship between IMCI compliance and three cost issues: the length of client-provider consultations, treatment drugs, and workload. The setting was 26 health clinics in Niger, the only developing country setting where QA was implemented before IMCI. [publisher’s description]

Safe Motherhood Studies: Timeliness of In-Hospital Care for Treating Obstetric Emergencies: Results from Benin, Ecuador, Jamaica, and Rwanda

This report presents data on in-hospital care for childbirth and obstetrical emergencies in 14 hospitals. This report examines intervals between critical events

Safe Motherhood Studies: Results from Rwanda: Competency of Skilled Birth Attendants; The Enabling Environment for Skilled Attendance at Delivery; In-Hospital Delays in Obstetric Care (Documenting the Third Delay)

This report presents the results from Rwanda for the of the Quality Assurance Project’s three Safe Motherhood Studies: competence of skilled birth attendants, the enabling environment for skilled attendance at birth, and the causes of the delay in receiving medical attention after a woman arrives at a healthcare facility. The Rwanda study focused on an urban referral (tertiary care) hospital with an active maternity department, two mid-sized referral (secondary care) hospitals, and four health centers. [publisher’s description]

Safe Motherhood Studies: Results from Benin: Competency of Skilled Birth Attendants; the Enabling Environment for Skilled Attendance at Delivery; In-Hospital Delays in Obstetric Care (Documenting the Third Delay)

Through its Safe Motherhood Research Program, the Quality Assurance Project carried out three studies to explore issues regarding competence of skilled birth attendants, the elements that contribute to an enabling environment and the causes of the delay in receiving medical attention after a woman arrives at a healthcare facility in countries with high maternal mortality ratios.

Quality of Obstetric Care Observed in 14 Hospitals in Benin, Ecuador, Jamaica and Rwanda

This report discusses care provided to 245 women during labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum and their newborns during immediate postpartum. The quality of care for different tasks (e.g., monitoring fetal heart rate) is presented by country, by hospital type, and overall. The report details performance on recommended tasks and should inform program managers and providers in finding similar weaknesses in their own care delivery systems. Report includes 21 data tables and the data collection instrument for observations. [publisher’s description]

Improving the Management of Obstetric Emergencies in Uganda through Case Management Maps

Case management maps (CMMs) are a type of job aid: a sheet of paper with information that guides healthcare providers in treating patients. Each patient has his or her own condition-related CMM, which is maintained in the patient’s chart or on the wall near the patient’s hospital bed to inform providers of the treatment protocol, what treatment was provided when and by whom, what to do should a critical event occur, etc. This report describes a study that implemented two CMMs that were introduced about a year apart in a 500-bed hospital where such job aids had not previously been used.

Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Cost More than Routine Care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania

The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy seeks to reduce [childhood] deaths through three main components: improving the skills of health workers, improving health systems an improving family and community practices. IMCI has been shown to be associated with improved quality of care, which should result in improved health outcomes. However, concern about the costs of implementing IMCI had been given as a reason why some countries have not adopted it on a large scale. It is important, therefore, to assess whether IMCI does, in practice, cost more than routine care for children who are less than 5 years old, and if so, by how much…Here we present results from the cost components of the MCE study in the United Republic of Tanzania.

Integrating Pediatric Palliative Care into Home-Based Care: an Evaluation of 3 Home-Based Care Projects

In order to identify potentially effective models of home-based care (HBC) within which paediatric palliative care could be integrated, and to identify critical aspects requiring strengthening, the NMCF commissioned an in-depth evaluation of three NGOs that have been supported through the Goelama Program. The objectives of the evaluation were: to evaluate the current capacity of the three HBC projects to provide paediatric palliative care as a component of overall HBC - this focused on the overall management of the projects, as well as the competencies of carers to provide both general HBC and palliative care to children; To explore the possibilities for strengthening the provision of paediatric palliative care as an integrated component of HBC; and to explore the role of home-based carers and HBC projects in the provision of ART to children. [author’s description]

Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing the WHO Focused Antenatal Care Package in Ghana

The Government of Ghana has adopted the WHO focused antenatal care (ANC) package in a move to improve access, quality and continuity of ANC services to pregnant women. As part of these efforts, the Government has exempted fees for ANC clients. The main objective of this study, undertaken by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the Ghana Health Service (GHS), FRONTIERS, and with USAID funding, was to examine the extent to which adaptation of the package influenced quality of care received by pregnant women and its acceptability to both providers and clients. The study used a policy analysis and a situation analysis in ten intervention clinics in which the package had been introduced and four comparison clinics.

Acceptability and Sustainability of the WHO Focused Antenatal Care package in Kenya

To promote the health and survival of mothers and babies, Kenya has adapted the WHO goal-oriented Antenatal Care (ANC) package, popularly known as focused ANC (FANC). The Ministry of Health (MOH) has designed new guidelines for ANC services, placing emphasis on refocusing antenatal care, birth planning and emergency preparedness, and the identification, prevention and management of life threatening complications during pregnancy and childbirth. ANC visits are now used as an entry point for a range of other services, thus promoting comprehensive integrated service delivery. A major challenge, however, is whether the Kenyan health care system can cope with the implementation of this package.

Combine Learning Approaches to Improve Maternal Care

A comparison showed that two models for teaching maternal care skills to providers resulted in similarly modest improvements in knowledge and performance. However, maternal care skills remained weak overall. Training should incorporate the best elements of the two approaches while seeking improvements in basic knowledge of maternal care. [author’s description]

Egypt Service Provision Assessment Survey 2004

The 2004 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA 2004) survey was designed to collect informationon the provision of reproductive health and child health services in Egypt in order to complement the information obtained through the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey. The ESPA 2004 collected information on the preparedness of health facilities in Egypt to provide high quality care to clients seeking services for family planning, maternal health, child health, and sexually transmitted infections. A representative sample of 659 clinics of all types of facilities, in both government and nongovernmental organization facilities, was assessed. The survey included, in addition to the resources of the facilities, interviews with service providers, observations of consultations between the providers and clients, and interviews with clients after they were served. The information included in this report is important for identifying areas of intervention that will help improve the quality of family planning, maternal health, and child health services provided to clients. [preface]

Household-to-Hospital Continuum of Maternal and Newborn Care

Achieving significant reductions in maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality will be facilitated by developing a comprehensive approach to address the social and health system issues in the community, and at both peripheral and district-level facilities. This integrated approach to community and facility based maternal and newborn programming and implementation is called the Household-to-Hospital Continuum of Care. [from author]

COPE for Child Health in Kenya and Guinea: an Analysis of Service Quality

This report presents the results of a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study evaluating the introduction and use of COPE and the resulting changes in service quality in two countries, Kenya and Guinea. At the end of a 15-month period, providers’ attitudes, providers’ ability to solve problems, service quality, and client satisfaction were assessed at eight intervention sites and at eight matched control sites, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. [author’s description]

Managing Programs to Maximize Access and Quality: Lessons Learned from the Field

This paper focuses on lessons learned about building quality improvement into service delivery programs. Addressed to the program leaders and donor agencies that allocate resources for service delivery programs, the paper offers guidance on the actions that must take place to improve the quality of reproductive health and child survival programs. This guidance is based on the field experiences of members of the Management and Supervision Subcommittee of the MAQ Initiative. [publisher’s description]

Guidelines for Assessment of Skilled Providers After Training in Maternal and Newborn Healthcare

Using all of the tools in the document will provide a comprehensive assessment of skills and service delivery. Each tool, however, may be used separately or combined with others to create a document appropriate for the content of a specific maternal and newborn health training course. [author’s description]

Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of Improving Maternal Health: Determinants, Interventions and Challenges

This paper summarizes the importance of improving maternal and reproductive health, the progress made to date and lessons learned, and the major challenges confronting programs today. The paper highlights the progress that some countries, including very poor ones, have made in reducing maternal mortality, but cautions that progress in many countries remains slow. Relying on evidence from the most recent research and survey information, the paper also analyzes the key determinants and evidence on effective interventions for attaining the maternal health MDG. [from abstract]

Section 3 dis

Working with the Private Sector for Child Health

In the majority of low and middle-income countries, the private sector presents significant opportunities for expanding the reach of essential child health services and products. Through better coordination with the private sector, governments and donors can improve the availability, quality, and effectiveness of child health services…This document assesses the current importance, and potential, of the private sector in contributing to child health. [author’s description]

Role of Professional Associations in Reducing Maternal Mortality Worldwide

This paper examines the potential roles and responsibilities of professional obstetrical and midwifery associations in addressing the tragedy of maternal deaths. We examine the successes and challenges of obstetrical and midwifery associations and encourage the growth and development of active associations to address maternal mortality within their own borders. [abstract]

Skilled Birth Attendants Accepted at Home Deliveries in Bangladesh

An NSDP survey shows strong support for the use of skilled birth attendants and willingness to pay for their services. Widespread use of SBAs holds much promise in helping to meet the UN Millennium Development goal of reducing the maternal mortality rate to around 140 by 2015. The survey results, which also indicate some barriers to SBA use, have enabled the design of an appropriate pilot intervention. [from introduction]

Training and Development Needs of Midwives in Indonesia: Paper 2 of 3

The current study was part of a review of the existing complex system of midwifery training in Indonesia and the development of a coherent program of continuing professional development, tighter accreditation regulations and clearer professional roles.

Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in the Poorest Communities

Current safer motherhood and newborn care programmes emphasize interventions that do not reach the poorest households. Community based interventions have been neglected and undervalued. In this article, we argue that large scale community effectiveness trials are both necessary and feasible if we are to make further progress with reducing maternal and child mortality. [author’s description]

Skilled Attendant at Birth: 2006 Updates

This docuemnt presents nationally representative data of births attended by skilled health workers available up to 2005 together with global, regional and subregional estimates. [author’s description]

Teaching Mothers to Provide Home Treatment of Malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Randomised Trial

No satisfactory strategy for reducing high child mortality from malaria has yet been established in tropical Africa. The authors compared the effect on under-5 mortality of teaching mothers to promptly provide antimalarials to their sick children at home, with the present community health worker approach. The study concludes that a major reduction in under-5 mortality can be achieved in holoendemic malaria areas through training local mother coordinators to teach mothers to give under-5 children antimalarial drugs. [adapted from abstract]

Implementing IMCI in a Developing Country: Estimating the Need for Additional Health Workers in Bangladesh

This study estimates the personnel cost implications of implementing the newly proposed Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm in the first level health care facilities in rural Bangladesh. Policy makers need to know the additional resource requirements for IMCI before its actual implementation so that appropriate levels and combinations of personnel and drugs can be allocated. [abstract]

Factors Affecting the Performance of Maternal Health Care Providers in Armenia

Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives) in two regions of Armenia. [from abstract]

Effective Teaching: A Guide for Educating Healthcare Providers

This reference manual, part of a learning package developed through a collaboration between the World Health Organization and JHPIEGO, contains 12 modules on topics such as facilitating group learning, managing clinical practice, and preparing and using knowledge and skills assessments. The modules include examples related to maternal, reproductive and child health.

Policy Brief Two: Rehabilitating the Workforce: The Key to Scaling up MNCH (World Health Report 2005: Making Every Mother and Child Count)

This policy brief from the World Health Report 2005 argues that it will not be possible to effectively scale up Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) care without confronting the global health workforce crisis. It highlights how lack of managerial autonomy, gender discrimination and violence in the workplace, dwindling salaries, poor working conditions and some donor interventions have all contributed to a lack of productivity, as well as the rural to urban, public to private and poor to rich country brain drain and migration. The brief argues the need to plan the expansion of the workforce while implementing corrective measures to rehabilitate productivity and morale.