Private Sector

Poor Knowledge on New Malaria Treatment Guidelines among Drug Dispensers in Private Pharmacies in Tanzania: the Need for Involving the Private Sector in Policy Preparations and Implementation

Irrational drug use is contributed by many factors including care providers giving wrong drug information to patients. Dispensing staff in private pharmacy shops play a significant role in pharmaceutical management and provision of relevant information to clinicians and patients, enhancing the improvement of rational medicine use. This report offers an evaluation/staff assessment of pharmacist knowledge in a situation where they function as health workers in dispensing and prescribing medications. [adapted from introduction]

Contracting of Health Services by Private Providers

This presentation discusses the various aspects of private providers as they pertain to contracting for health services. [from presentation]

Filipino Midwives Reaching out to the Communities

This presentation discusses the roles and challenges of private sector midwives and how they can benefit community health care.

Private Provider Networks in Ethiopia

The Private Sector Partnerships-One (PSP-One) project fielded an assessment team to document the state of operations for the Biruh Tesfa network, identify strategies to improve network sustainability, and determine local organizations that could have a role in network management and support. In addition the team was asked to explore opportunities to integrate HIV services into the Biruh Tesfa network. [from abstract]

Nigeria Private Sector Health Assessment

This document is the result of an assessment of the private sector in Nigeria for the provision of reproductive health and family planning products and services. [from abstract]

Evaluation of Immunization Knowledge, Practices, and Service-delivery in the Private Sector in Cambodia

A study of private-sector immunization services was undertaken to assess scope of practice and quality of care and to identify opportunities for the development of models of collaboration between the public and the private health sector. A questionnaire survey was conducted with health providers at 127 private facili¬ties; clinical practices were directly observed; and a policy forum was held for government representatives, private healthcare providers, and international partners. [from abstract]

Monitoring the Performance of a Reproductive Health Franchise in Nepal

This study examines the experience of the Sewa nurse and paramedic franchise in Nepal and assesses whether there were changes in the perceived quality of services approximately one year after the formation of the network. This study also examines the extent to which there was an increase in the use of reproductive health services during this period. [from introduction]

Can Working with the Private For-Profit Sector Improve Utilization of Quality Health Services by the Poor?: A Systematic Review of the Literature

This paper is a systematic literature review on the effectiveness of working with private for-profit providers to reach the poor. [adapted from abstract]

Description of the Private Nurse Midwives Networks (Clusters) in Kenya: a Best Practice Model

During the 1990s in Kenya, nurse midwives, a new group of private-sector service providers, were licensed to operate private clinics close to communities. The private nurse midwives operate private clinics, nursing and maternity homes primarily in densely populated peri-urban areas, rural trading centers and towns. The networks described in this report emerged out of the need for a sustainable supervision system and a continuing education program for the private nurse midwives. [from introduction]

Financial Incentives, Healthcare Providers and Quality Improvements: a Review of the Evidence

This study reviews the healthcare literature that examines the effect of financial incentives on the behaviour of healthcare organisations and individuals with respect to the quality of care they deliver to consumers. Its purpose is to provide guidance to policy-makers in government and decision-makers in the private sector in their efforts to improve quality of care through payment reforms. [adapted from summary]

How Private Health Care Can Help Africa

To understand how the private health sector might better complement Africa’s public health systems, we studied the health care sectors of 45 sub-Saharan African countries. The findings suggest opportunities for private enterprise to help improve the region’s woefully poor health outcomes.

How Can Management and Leadership Training for Health Be Made Affordable, Accessible, Sustainable and Scalable? The Role of Private Sector Collaboration

This presentation was given at the First Forum on Human Resources for Health in Kampala. It discusses the need for scaled-up management and leadership training to equip healthcare professionals with the skills, experience and knowledge to manage health programs effectively and how private sector approaches to this challege offer a strategic resource to improve the management and output of health systems. [adapted from author]

Managerial Competencies of Hospital Managers in South Africa: a Survey of Managers in the Public and Private Sectors

This study evaluated the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa to determine whether there are any significant differences between managers in the public and private sectors. The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. [adapted from abstract]

Financing and Training Needs of Small-Scale Private Health Care Providers and Distributors in Romania

This report assesses the business development needs, particularly financial and training, of private health care providers and distributors of reproductive health and family planning products and services in Romania. [adapted from author]

Business of Health in Africa: Partnering with the Private Sector to Improve People's Lives

This report describes opportunities for engaging and supporting a well managed and effectively regulated private sector to improve the region’s health. This report highlights the critical role the private sector can play in meeting health care needs in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also identifies policy changes that governments and international donors can make to enable the private sector to take on an ever more meaningful role in closing Africa’s health care gap. [adapted from publisher]

Maximizing Private Sector Contribution to Family Planning in the Europe & Eurasia Region: Context Analysis and Review of Strategies

This paper looks at reproductive health and family planning programs in the Eastern Europe and Eurasian region. It includes: a methodology to analyze the RH/FP market; an overview of opportunities and constraints to the private sector region; a description of current practices in the region that foster a greater private sector role in the provision of FP services and products; and recommendations for leveraging and maximizing private sector contribution to RH/FP goals. [adapted from author]

Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: Current Evidence and Future Directions

This guide offers policymakers and researchers the latest evidence on private-provider networks and franchises, lessons learned in the field, and policy recommendations on how to mobilize private-provider networks and health franchises to help address reproductive health care needs in developing countries. [adapted from publisher]

Why Policy Matters: Regulatory Barriers to Better Primary Care in Africa: Two Private Sector Examples

This paper examines recent experiences in Zambia, and Ethiopia that illustrate why policy matters for developing the private health sector and underscoring the need for rational regulatory policies and practices. [author’s description]

South African Health Review 2007

This edition focuses on the role of the private sector, a part of the health system that has not previously been accorded extensive coverage in the SAHR. The contrast between the public and private sectors remains stark in many facets and the deepening inequity is cause for profound concern. The significance of the private sector cannot be underestimated both with regard to its potential contribution to the health and well-being of this country’s people, as well as its role in drawing resources (financial and human) from the public sector.

Public-Private Options for Expanding Access to Human Resources for HIV/AIDS in Botswana

In responding to the goal of rapidly increasing access to antiretroviral treatment (ART), the government of Botswana undertook a major review of its health systems options to increase access to human resources, one of the major bottlenecks preventing people from receiving treatment. In mid-2004, a team of government and World Health Organization (WHO) staff reviewed the situation and identified a number of public sector scale up options. The team also reviewed the capacity of private practitioners to participate in the provision of ART. Subsequently, the government created a mechanism to include private practitioners in rolling out ART.

Malaria Treatement and Policy in Three Regions in Nigeria: the Role of Patent Medicine Vendors

Malaria is a major cause of illness and death in Nigeria, and a significant drain on its economy and the poor. Yet most Nigerians do not obtain appropriate treatment for malaria, and depend on informal private providers for anti-malarial drugs (AMDs), largely through patent medicine vendors (PMVs). This study seeks to better understand the role played by PMVs in the provision of AMDs in Nigeria, and to explore ways to improve the regulation and delivery of AMDs. [from summary]

Contribution of Privately Owned Hospitals in the Provision of Essential Obstetric Care in Nigeria

The objective of the study reported in this article was to highlight the private sector contribution in the provision of essential obstetric care in Abia State, Southeastern Nigeria. [adapted from abstract]

Regulating Private Practice: the (In)Visible Hand of Government in the Medical Marketplace

This presentation discusses quality issues in private practice in developing countries, how the government can make licensing and regulation more effective, shifting the quality distribution and the use of accreditation. [adapted from author]

Impact of Private Clinic Networks on Client Service Access and Quality: Evidence from Ethiopia, India and Pakistan

This presentation is from PSP-One’s GHC Expert Panel - Expanding Health Service Access, Quality, and Equity in Developing Countries: The Role of the Private Sector. It presents franchise models for delivering family planning and reproductive health services by the private sector.

Chiranjeevi: Involving Private Obstetricians to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Gujarat (India)

This PowerPoint was presented at the 2007 GHC expert panel “Making it Work: Private Sector Partnerships to Improve Women’s Health.” It discusses the challenges, costs and results of a program to use private practitioners for improving maternal and child survival.

What Can Be Done about the Private Health Sector in Low-Income Countries?

In recent years there has been a considerable growth of interest in the activities of providers in the private health sector in low income countries, and in how policy-makers might best capitalize on the accessibility and popularity of this sector. However, the evidence is limited as to which approaches work best. The aim of the present paper is to consider how the activities of the private health sector in low-income countries can be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives. [from introduction]

Expanding Access to the Management of HIV/AIDS Through Physicians in Private Practice: and Exploratory Survey of Knowledge and Practices in Two Nigerian States

A significant proportion of people in Nigeria seek medical care primarily in the “for profit” private sector. The complexity of managing HIV and AIDS has led to debates on whether care should only be restricted to trained and accredited experts in HIV care. This research studied the knowledge and practices of physicians in private practice in two Nigerian states on the management of patients with HIV/AIDS using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire eliciting knowledge and attitudinal information. This is to ascertain their preparedness to manage HIV positive patients. [from abstract]

Assessing the Level of Preparedness of Private Health Providers for Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nassarawa State, Nigeria

Very little information is available on the extent to which the private health sector is involved in clinical management of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. This study assessed the potentials and existing capacity of 15 private health facilities in Nassarawa state for clinical management of HIV/AIDS. [from abstract]

Utilizing the Potential of Formal and Informal Private Practitioners in Child Survival: Situation Analysis and Summary of Promising Interventions

This review and discussion paper highlights the important role that private practitioners are already playing in providing health services to children in many countries, and the far greater contribution that they could be called upon to make.

Creating Conditions for Greater Private Sector Participation in FP/RH: Benefits for Contraceptive Security

Contraceptive security requires comprehensive and integrated approaches that go beyond the public sector. Private sector involvement is critical not only in helping respond to growing market demand but also in ensuring equity in the contraceptive market. Redirecting well-off clients to the private sector will free up scarce donor and public resources for those most vulnerable and in need. Governments and donors cannot mandate private sector expansion and roles; however, they can create favorable conditions that induce private providers to enter the FP/RH market. [author’s description]