Fragile Environments

Expanding the Impact: Using Volunteer Healthcare Providers to Expand the Global Health Workforce

This report will address the need to expand the global healthcare workforce and international emergency medical response mechanisms. It will also analyze the current mechanisms and channels that mobilize and coordinate healthcare volunteers in response to international disasters. The report will provide several collaborative pathways through which non-governmental organizations can coordinate their international emergency response efforts with volunteer teams of healthcare providers. [from introduction]

Need for Continual Education about Disaster Medicine for Health Professionals in China: a Pilot Study

Disaster medicine training is not included in medical education curriculum in China, even though the country has suffered various disasters annually. This article intended to assess the need for continual education regarding disaster management for health professionals in China.

Analysis of the Opinions and Experiences of Australians Involved in Health Aspects of Disaster Response Overseas to Enhance Effectiveness of Humanitarian Assistance

This report is based on findings of a study that analysed the opinions and experiences of Australians who provided humanitarian relief following disasters, in complex emergencies and wars. The issue of human resources within the humanitarian sector is now unquestionably on the agenda, and the identification of important gaps in knowledge within this field is the central thrust for the study which investigated Australian disaster workers from a broad range of health-related fields. [adapted from author]

Human Resources in Humanitarian Health Working Group Report

Task shifting is one avenue for delivering needed health care in resource poor settings, and on-the-ground reports indicate that task shifting may be applicable in humanitarian responses to natural disasters and conflicts. This report evaluates the potential strengths and weaknesses of task shifting in humanitarian relief efforts, and proposes a range of strategies to constructively integrate task shifting into humanitarian response. [adapted from abstract]

Health Sector and Gender-Based Violence in the Time of War

In countries where conflict-related and gender-based violence is taking place, the health sector can contribute by providing essential medical interventions and support for survivors, documentation for legal cases, programs that assist in reducing social stigma, and data for effective programming. [from summary]

Helping Hands for Health Workers in Fragile States

Nowhere is the global health worker crisis more acute than in fragile states – those countries where the government cannot or will not deliver core functions to the majority of its people. Since the civil war, Liberia has an absolute shortage of health workers. Merlin is working with the government to help train health workers and rebuild the shattered health system. [from author]

Health and Fragile States

With some of the worst health indicators and the least adequate health services in the world, providing health services and rebuilding health systems in fragile states is a complex undertaking. This health and fragile states dossier highlights the challenges and approaches to delivering health services in fragile states. [from publisher]

Essential Trauma Management Training: Addressing Service Delivery Needs in Active Conflict Zones in Eastern Myanmar

The Trauma Management Program (TMP) was developed to improve the capacity of local health workers to deliver effective trauma care. This report illustrates a method to increase the capacity of indigenous health workers to manage traumatic injuries. These health workers are able to provide trauma care for otherwise inaccessible populations in remote and conflicted regions. The principles learnt during the implementation of the TMP might be applied in similar settings. [from introduction]

Using Non-State Providers to Meet Public Health Goals in Fragile States: Can They Fill the Gap?

This presentation was from the “Health Service Delivery in Fragile States for US$ 5 perperson per year: Myth or Reality?” conference. It discusses the limited public sector capacity to deliver priority services in fragile states and the opportunities and challenges of using non-state providers to increase coverage. [adapted from author]

Emergency Medical Services

This resource is a chapter from Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Despite the best efforts of primary care providers and public health planners, not every emergency is preventable. Actual provision of emergency care may range from delivery using trained emergency professionals to delivery by laypeople and taxi drivers. Developing strategies to meet the range of needs posed by such diverse circumstances will require innovation and a reorientation of public health planning. [from introduction]

Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a Pathway to Sustainable Public Health Capacity Development

The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system.[adapted from abstract]

Human Resources for Health in Fragile States

This article discusses the requirements for improving the experience of health care workers in fragile states. Efforts are needed to establish performance-management systems, to support promotion based on merit, and to provide wider opportunities for professional development. These efforts must be accompanied by measures to restructure the workforce (in some cases radically), thus matching staffing levels with agreed norms and to redress imbalances between rural and urban areas and between different levels within the system. [adapted from author]

Rehabilitation Under Fire: Health Care in Iraq 2003-2007

This report describes how the war in Iraq and its aftermath continue to have a disastrous impact on the physical and mental health of the Iraqi people, and the urgent measures needed to improve health and health services. It assesses the current state of the health system, including the impact of insecurity, and the workforce, supplies, medicines and equipment it lacks. It also looks at health information and health policy in Iraq. The report ends with conclusions and recommendations, exploring what needs to happen now in Iraq and what lessons can be learned. [adapted from author]

Scaling Up Health Worker Numbers in a Post Conflict Setting

This presentation was given at the First Forum on Human Resources for Health in Kampala. It discusses training Clinical Officers, a cadre of mid-level health professionals, as a method of filling the health worker gap in a post-conflict area.

Human Resources for Health Programs for Countries in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations

The challenges inherent in planning, developing and supporting a sustainable health care workforce are all the more difficult in countries where conflict or the aftermath of conflict can impede the implementation of short- and long-term approaches to building human resources for health (HRH). Based on field experiences implementing programs in such situations and supplemented by a carefully targeted literature review, this resource paper explores operational challenges, opportunities and goals common to initiating HRH programs in conflict and post-conflict situations. [introduction]

Ready to Rebuild: Sudanese Doctors Return Home

The 2005 peace treaty between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army created a window of opportunity for rebuilding the south’s severely damaged health sector. The effort is getting an important boost from a program to bring back 15 Sudanese-born doctors who are ready to help. [adapted from author]

Management of Expatriate Medical Assistance in Mozambique

This paper discusses how Mozambique coped with the health system needs in terms of specialized doctors since independence, in a troubled context of war, lack of financial resources and modifying settings of foreign aid. The Ministry of Health (MOH) managed to make up for its severe scarcity of specialist MDs especially through contracting expatriate technical assistance.

Coping with Crisis: How to Meet Reproductive Health Needs in Crisis Situations

People caught in crisis situations have crucial reproductive health needs. The needs of pregnant women are most urgent. Complications of labor and delivery can be life-threatening when women lack adequate care. Risk for HIV/AIDS, other STIs, and unwanted pregnancy increases, particularly when disorder provides cover for rape and other sexual coercion. Health care providers understand people’s needs and have experience meeting them, but few have worked in humanitarian relief.

Health Sector in Sudan: a Strategic Framework for Recovery

The document aims to analyse the health system in Sudan, to identify the new challenges brought about by the new context, and on this basis to present a post-conflict strategic framework for the health sector. Chapter 3 presents an overview of the health sector. Available data on infrastructures and human resources indicate wide inequality across states in resource availability.

On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares?

An honest and critical examination of the role of Health Care Professionals (HCPs) during communicable disease outbreaks is needed in order to provide guidelines regarding professional rights and responsibilities, as well as ethical duties and obligations. With this paper, we hope to open the social dialogue and advance the public debate on this increasingly urgent issue. [summary]

Recruitment and Retention of a High-Quality Healthcare Workforce

Functioning health services are key to making the community of New Orleans livable again. Conversely, a livable community is key to attracting a stable healthcare workforce to New Orleans. Hurricane Katrina forced the entire healthcare workforce to evacuate the City of New Orleans and a large majority of these workers have since found jobs elsewhere, such as in neighboring parishes and Texas. This brief summarizes policy options to create and maintain a healthcare workforce, as well as options to bridge the transition from the current situation to the point at which the interventions will show an effect.

Guide to Health Workforce Development in Post-Conflict Environments

Designed to assist in re-establishing health services in a context of political and economical instability, this guide provides practical information and tools for rebuilding a health workforce, as well as examples from post-conflict countries. [publisher’s description]