Americas & Caribbean

Tracking the Workforce: The American Society of Clinical Oncology Workforce Information System

This article reports on a workforce information system designed to assemble the latest available data on oncologist supply and cancer incidence and prevalence, which was developed in anticipation of projected oncologist workforce shortages. [adapted from abstract]

House Calls by Community Health Workers and Public Health Nurses to Improve Adherence to Isoniazid Montotherapy for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Retrospective Study

The goal of this study was to assess whether house calls by community health workers and public health nurses affected isoniazid adherence for latent tuberculosis infection or frequency of adverse effects. [adapted from author]

Impact of Nurse Working Hours on Patient Safety Culture: A Cross-National Survey Including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan Using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture

The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on patient safety culture in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture assessment tool. [adapted from abstract]

Global Mental Health: Transformative Capacity Building in Nicaragua

Using the framework of best practice literature, this article analyses a four-year collaborative process between two universities to build health worker capacity at the primary healthcare and system levels to address gaps in mental health services. [adapted from abstract]

Reducing Inequities in Neonatal Mortality through Adequate Supply of Health Workers: Evidence from Newborn Health in Brazil

Using the case of Brazil, this study investigates the extent to which policies and interventions seeking to increase the accessibility of health services among the poor have been effective in decreasing neonatal mortality. [adapted from abstract]

Influence of Organizational Context on the Use of Research by Nurses in Canadian Pediatric Hospitals

The objective of this study was to identify dimensions of organizational context and individual nurse characteristics that influence pediatric nurses’ self-reported use of research. [from abstract]

Factors Influencing Pharmacists' Adoption of Prescribing: Qualitative Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

The objective of this study was to understand what factors influence pharmacists’ adoption of prescribing using a model for the diffusion of innovations in healthcare services in Alberta, the first Canadian jurisdiction to grant pharmacists a wide range of prescribing privileges. [adapted from abstract]

Physician Emigration from Sub-Saharan Africa to the United States: Analysis of the 2011 AMA Physician Masterfile

The objective of this study was to determine current emigration trends of sub-Saharan African physicians found in the physician workforce of the United States. [from abstract]

Demonstration Study Comparing Role-Emergent Versus Role-Established Pharmacy Clinical Placement Experiences in Long-Term Care Facilities

This study was undertaken to explore the viability of supervising pharmacy students remotely – a model referred to in the literature as role-emergent placements as a possible model to fill the gap in on-site pharmacy preceptors at role-established sites. This paper discusses pharmacy preceptors and long-term care facility non-pharmacist staff experiences with this model. [adapted from abstract]

Using Verbal Autopsy to Ascertain Perinatal Cause of Death: Are Trained Non-Physicians Adequate?

This initiative’s objective was to develop a standardized verbal autopsy training program and evaluate whether its implementation resulted in comparable knowledge required to classify perinatal cause of death by physicians and non-physicians. [from abstract]

Peer Group Intervention for HIV Prevention among Health Workers in Chile

The authors tested the impacts of a professionally assisted peer-group intervention on Chilean health workers’ HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and 3 month post-test. [from author]

Evolving Role of Health Care Aides in the Long-Term Care and Home and Community Care Sectors in Canada

This study attempts to gather information on health care aides, a cadre that constitutes a significant component of the health care labor force providing home and community care in Canada, to fill gaps in basic information about this component of the workforce including motivations, retention, and adequacy of their training. [adapted from author]

Learning from the Brazilian Community Health Worker Model in North Wales

This article describes the rationale for the UK to learn from Brazil’s scaled-up Community Health Worker primary care strategy, starting with a pilot project in North Wales. [from abstract]

Does Implementation of a Hospitalist Program in a Canadian Community Hospital Improve Measures of Quality of Care and Utilization? An Observational Comparative Analysis of Hospitalists vs. Traditional Care Providers

The objective of this study is to compare measures of cost and quality of care (in-hospital mortality, 30-day same-facility readmission, and length of stay) of hospitalists vs. traditional physician providers in a large Canadian community hospital setting. [from abstract]

PHR Summaries: Strategies for Addressing Intimitate Partner Violence in Health Care Settings in Haiti: Provider Perspectives

This brief outlines the process and findings of a study that compared the attitudes, perceived barriers and enablers of intimate partner violence universal screening among physicians, nurses, and community health workers. [adapted from author]

Moving to Action: Evidence-Based Retention and Recruitment Policy Initatives for Nursing

This study was a program of research designed to develop a comprehensive understanding of Canadian nurse migration and mobility. The program was comprised of three interrelated studies aimed to determine the reasons why Canadian nurses migrate to the US for work, the drivers of nurse mobility across the provinces/territories in Canada, and the challenges that they have experienced with seeking employment in Canada that could be addressed through changes to policy. [adapted from summary]

Primary Healthcare Providers' Views on Improving Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare for Adolescents in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua

This study aimed to elicit the views of primary healthcare providers from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua on how adolescent sexual and reproductive health care in their communities can be improved. [from abstract]

Strengthening Health Systems in North and Central America: What Role for Migration?

Using a comparative case study, this report looks at health care services and human resources in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and the United States to identify constraints on health care capacity to explore how the effective management of migration across these countries might help meet the demand for health care services. Nursing personnel are the focus of the report. [from summary]

Brain Drain of Health Care Workers: Causes, Solutions and the Example of Jamaica

This article descibes the importance of health workers in tackling problems in health care systems, the impact of the brain drain of health workers, and uses an example of out migration in Jamaica to demonstrate the issues.

Engaging Primary Care Practitioners in Quality Improvement: Making Explicit the Program Theory of an Interprofessional Education Intervention

This paper describes the theory underlying an interprofessional educational intervention developed in Canada for the purpose of improving chronic disease management in primary care in order to explain explicitly the theory underlying this intervention, to describe its components in detail and to assess the intervention’s feasibility and acceptability. [adapted from abstract]

Case Study of Nurse Practitioner Role Implementation in Primary Care: What Happens When New Roles Are Introduced

The purpose of the study was to explain the process implementing a new cadre of nurse practitioners role in British Columbia as it was occurring and to identify factors that could enhance the implementation process. An explanatory, single case study with embedded units of analysis was used. [adapted from abstract]

Supporting Work Practices through Telehealth: Impact on Nurses in Peripheral Regions

This research aimed to better understand how work practice reorganization, supported by ICTs, and particularly by telehealth, may influence professional, educational, and organizational factors relating to Quebec nurses, notably those working in peripheral regions. [from abstract]

Factors Influencing Rural and Urban Emergency Clinicians' Participation in an Online Knowledge Exchange Intervention

This study explored factors influencing rural and urban emergency department clinicians’ participation in a web-based knowledge exchange intervention that focused on best practice knowledge about pediatric emergency care. [from abstract]

Regulated Nurses: Canadian Trends, 2007 to 2011

This report highlights trends across Canada, across regulated nursing professions and across a variety of demographic, education, mobility and employment characteristics to inform health human resource planning in Canada. [from summary]

Job Preferences of Nurses and Midwives for Taking Up a Rural Job in Peru: A Discrete Choice Experiment

A discrete choice experiment was conducted to evaluate the job preferences of nurses and midwives currently working on a short-term contract in the public sector in Ayacucho, Peru to assess factors that would attract short-term contract nurses and midwives to work in a rural area of Peru. [adapted from abstract]

Continuing Education Training Focused on the Development of Behavioral Telehealth Competencies in Behavioral Healthcare Providers

This study assessed the impact of a behavioral telehealth ethical competencies training program on behavioral health providers’ development of behavioral telehealth competency. Video vignettes evaluating the 14 competencies, self-reported competence surveys and follow-up surveys of progress on telehealth goals were utilized to assess effects of the training. [adapted from abstract]

Nursing in Costa Rica

This brief outlines the health system context and the basid statistics and facts about the nursing workforce in Costa Rica.

Hawai'i Physician Workforce Assessment 2010

The current article describes research to determine the physician supply and demand across the State of Hawai’i. [from abstract]

Improving Primary Care in British Columbia, Canada: Evaluation of a Peer-to-Peer Continuing Education Program for Family Physicians

This study evaluated participant satisfaction of an interactive educational program that offers peer-to-peer training to physicians and their office staff on topics ranging from clinical tools/skills to office management relevant to general practitioner practices. [adapted from abstract]

Assessment of a Complementary Curricular Strategy for Training South African Physicians in a Cuban Medical University

Although the ethical, humanistic and solidarity Cuba’s general medical training program does not provide all skills needed by a general practitioner in South Africa, so Cuba has applied a curricular strategy of 12 complementary courses to develop the requested additional skills. The objective of this study was to determine why the complementary curricular strategy has not been entirely successful and identify possible courses of action for improvement. [adapted from abstract]