Gender Issues

Addressing Gender Inequality in Human Resources for Health

This brief reviews how the Capacity Project addressed gender discrimination and inequality in HRH through its institutional mechanisms, approaches and tools as well as in country-level implementation. [from author]

Improving Sexual and Reproductive Health: Integrating Women's Empowerment and Reproductive Rights

Obstetricians, gynaecologists, family physicians, midwives, nurses, and other reproductive health care providers, along with their professional associations, are on the front lines to promote and to protect women’s reproductive health and rights through the clinical services they already provide. Health professionals are also well positioned to address the root causes of many of these problems: inequality, discrimination, and a lack of respect for sexual and reproductive rights. [from introduction]

Are Clinicians Being Prepared to Care for Abused Women? A Survey of Health Professional Education in Ontario, Canada

This article details the results of a survey and environmental scan regarding educational opportunities available to future health care providers concerning the topic of intimate partner violence against women. [adapted from abstract]

Men and Care in the Context of HIV and AIDS: Structure, Political Will and Greater Male Involvement

AIDS is a long and debilitating illness that renders patients unable to fend for themselves. In wealthy countries, health systems provide much of the necessary care; in the developing world, however, the burden is taken up by family and community members, a large majority of whom are women. This paper outlines some of the causes of this imbalance and makes recommendations for governments as they attempt to address the problem. [adapted from introduction]

Study on Workplace Violence within the Health Sector in Rwanda: Final Report

A study on workplace violence within the health sector in Rwanda was conducted in 2007 in order to determine the type, impact, context, consequences and prevention strategies of workplace violence in Rwanda; to assist the Ministries of Health, Public service and Labor (MIFOTRA) as well as other stakeholders in developing a political, legal and programmatic response to improve providers’ safety, satisfaction and retention. This study also explored the characteristics of gender-based violence, including gender-based discrimination and its relation to workplace violence. [adapted from foreword]

Alleviating the Burden of Responsibility: Report on a Study of Men as Providers of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Care and Support in Lesotho

This report details the work of the the Capacity Project assistance to the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare to strengthen its capacity to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic by addressing gender segregation in nonformal caregiving through the active engagement of men as providers of community and home-based HIV/AIDS care and support. [adapted from foreword]

Reducing the Burden of HIV and AIDS Care on Women and Girls

Public health systems in most developing countries do not have the capacity to provide necessary care and support to people living with HIV & AIDS. Out of necessity, many turn to family, neighbours and friends for care, the majority of whom are female. This policy brief outlines why women and girls carry the burden of HIV & AIDS care, describes the impact on them and makes policy and program recommendations to help reduce this burden. [adapted from abstract]

Men's Partnership in Maternal Health (Jordan)

This video resource shows that despite the awareness advancement regarding reproductive health, women in Jordan still bear the burden of their health alone. This is especially true in rural areas; however, despite social criticism, men have decided to stand by their wives. [adapted from synopsis]

Men's Partnership in Maternal Health (Tajikistan)

This video resource details the social, economic and health care services disparities between urban and rural areas of Tajikistan and how women there struggle with their health and the role of men, or the lack thereof, in supporting them. [adapted from synopsis]

Reducing HIV Stigma and Gender Based Violence: Toolkit for Health Care Providers in India

The toolkit is a collection of participatory educational exercises for educating health care providers on the issues of stigma and gender-based violence. It was developed for and with health care providers in Andhra Pradesh, India. The goal is to facilitate open discussion on HIV stigma and gender violence, and on what health workers can do to promote a change in attitude and practice. [from publisher]

Freedom to Do the Job: Barriers to Female Health Workers Practicing in Pakistan

Pakistan has introduced female health workers to make sure that women are able to receive the health care they need. However, these health workers face the same cultural constraints as other women in their society. Male colleagues and managers must be more supportive to female health workers, whilst formal structures should be provided for training and effective complaints procedures. [from author]

Men’s Reproductive Health Curriculum

This three-part curriculum is designed to provide a broad range of health care workers with the skills and sensitivity needed to work with male clients and provide men’s reproductive health services. [from author]

Gender Sensitivity among General Practioners: Results of a Training Programme

Gender differences contribute to patients’ health and illness. However in current healthcare practices attention to gender differences is still underdeveloped. Recognizing these differences and taking them into account can improve the quality of care. In this study we aimed to investigate whether GPs’ gender sensitivity can be stimulated by a training program. [from abstract]

Gender Biases and Discrimination: a Review of Health Care Interpersonal Interactions

This paper maps the context of how gender shapes provider-client interaction and the impact of these interactions; provides a detailed breakdown of the nature of provider-patient interactions and how gender impacts on these interactions from the perspective of patients and providers; and reviews gender-specific policies and program interventions within the health system for improving the interpersonal dimension of health care and hence quality of care. [adapted from executive summary]

Gender and Health Workforce Statistics

Gender analysis of the health workforce may reveal that health systems themselves can reflect or even exacerbate many of the social inequalities they are meant to address and be immune from.

Unequal, Unfair, Ineffective and Inefficient: Gender Inequity in Health: Why It Exists and How We Can Change It

Taking action to improve gender equity in health and to address women’s rights to health is one of the most direct and potent ways to reduce health inequities and ensure effective use of health resources. This report discusses the gender aspects of health such as how the work that women do as providers of health care within families can be better supported so as to reduce their burdens and promote their own health. Section vii.1.2 (p. 82) discusses women as health care provides, section vii.2.1 (p. 87) focuses on how to improve access to health care from the provider side such as gender awareness in medical education.

Attitudes Toward and Experiences of Gender Issues Among Physician Teachers: a Survey Study Conducted at a University Teaching Hospital in Sweden

Gender issues are important to address during medical education, however research about the implementation of gender in medical curricula reports that there are obstacles. The aim of this study was to explore physician teachers’ attitudes to gender issues. [from abstract]

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Experiences of Women in the Health Sector

The objective of this paper is to explore the context of sexual harassment of women in the health sector in Kolkata, West Bengal. Specifically, it explores women’s perceptions of the occurrence of sexual harassment in hospital settings, and probes women’s own experiences of sexual harassment and incidents of sexual harassment in the hospital environment about which women are aware. The study also investigates the nature of action taken to seek redress, and the extent to which working women are aware of the complaint mechanism outlined by the Supreme Court. [from introduction]

Gender Sensitization among Health Providers and Communities through Transformative Learning Tools: Experiences from Karachi, Pakistan

Programs and services need to be sensitively designed to facilitate women’s access to physical and social needs. This paper narrates the experience of working with health providers from public and private sectors, community, local government representatives and community-based organizations. Through transformative learning, this endeavour focused on initiating a process of sensitization on gender related health issues for women. [from abstract]

Human Resources for Health: a Gender Analysis

In this paper I discuss gender issues manifested within health occupations and across them. In particular, I examine gender dynamics in medicine, nursing, community health workers and home carers. I also explore from a gender perspective issues concerning delegation, migration and violence, which cut across these categories of health workers. These occupational categories and themes reflect priorities identified by the terms of reference for this review paper and also the themes that emerged from the accessed literature. [from summary]

Equidad de género y calidad en el empleo: Las trabajadoras y los trabajadores en salud en Argentina

Se presentan una serie de recomendaciones de políticas y líneas de investigación que buscan instalar como “campo” de acción y de investigación la producción sistemática de información sobre recursos humanos en salud desde una perspectiva de género. [rusumen]

Gender Differences Among Oral Health Care Workers in Caring for HIV/AIDS Patients in Osun State, Nigeria

The study investigated the relationship between gender and knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control among oral health care workers in the management of patients with HIV/AIDS in Osun State of Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey using 85 oral Health care workers enlisted in the public dental health clinics. [from abstract]

Perceptions of Health Care Providers in Mulago Hospital on Prevention and Mangement of Domestic Violence

The objective of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers in Mulago hospital towards domestic violence prevention and management, especially violence during pregnancy. Many respondents had poor knowledge of domestic violence management or prevention. Though they believed counseling survivors was necessary, none of the in-depth interviewees had counseling skills or had ever referred patients or survivors for such counseling.

Sexual and Reproductive Health for HIV-Positive Women and Adolescent Girls: Manual for Trainers and Programme Managers

The goal of this training is to enable health workers to address the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of HIV-positive women and adolescent girls by offering comprehensive SRH services within their own particular service-delivery setting. [from introduction]

Gender Sensitivity Assessment Tool for FP/RH Curricula

A tool designed to help program and training managers, curriculum designers and trainers facilitate the operationalization and assessment of gender sensitivity during pre- and in-service training of service providers.

NARF Handbook on Incorporating Gender and Human Rights in HIV/AIDS Training

This handbook explains why a gender and human rights strategy is a better approach for achieving results in curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic It also shows you how to do it by providing the necessary information and techniques for incorporating gender and human rights into HIV/AIDS training. [from introduction]

Implementing the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work

The manual is designed to help the ILO’s partners understand the issues and apply the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work. The Code is at the core of the ILO’s Programme on HIV/AIDS, providing guidance to governments, employers and workers, as well as other stakeholders, on national action plans and workplace policies and programmes to combat HIV/AIDS.

Gendered Home-Based Care in South Africa: More Trouble for the Troubled

This study investigates the experiences of informal caregivers of people living with HIV in two semi-rural communities in South Africa. It is argued that a thorough understanding of how home-based care undermines the physical health and psychological wellbeing of already vulnerable women is crucial for informing policies on home-based care. Thus, there is a need to incorporate gender perspectives when planning and implementing home-based care programs. [from abstract]

Pakistan, Afghanistan Look to Women to Improve Health Care

Women health workers have been vital in improving the health of women and children in Pakistan. Inspired by its neighbor’s experience, Afghanistan is embarking on a similar program to encourage women to work in the health sector. [author’s description]

Integrating Poverty and Gender into Health Programmes: A Sourcebook for Health Professionals (Module on Gender-Based Violence)

This module is designed to improve the awareness, knowledge and skills of health professionals on gender-based violence. Gender-based violence has long remained a feature of family and social life, about which society has preferred to remain silent. GBV takes many forms and affects a large number of women from all parts of the world at different points in their life cycle, from infancy and childhood to adulthood and old age. Health professionals are in a unique position to identify the problem, contribute to its prevention and assist victims.