Monitoring & Evaluation

Optimizing Performance and Quality

This document is an introduction to the optimizing performance and quality process for analyzing the performance of health workers, organizations, and systems, and setting up interventions to improve performance and quality or build on strengths and successes. [adapted from author]

Introduction to Monitoring and Evaluation of Human Resources for Health

This free online course provides a basic introduction to monitoring and evaluation concepts and how they apply to the field of human resources for health to inform evidence-based planning and decision-making. [from publisher]

Health Workers' Attitudes toward Immigrant Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Primary Health Care Services

This study aimed to examine attitudes of different health workers’ groups toward immigrant patients and to identify the associated factors. [from abstract]

Factors Predicting Doctors' Reporting of Performance Change in Response to Multisource Feedback

Building on medical education and social psychology literature, the authors identified several factors that may influence change in response to multi-source feedback, which offers doctors feedback on their performance from peers (medical colleagues), coworkers and patients. [adapted from abstract]

Measurement and Correlates of Empathy among Female Japanese Physicians

This study focused on female Japanese physicians and addressed factors that were associated with their empathic engagement in patient care. [from abstract]

Making Health Markets Work for the Poor: Improving Provider Performance

The paper develops a framework for designing and implementing healthcare delivery innovations aimed at making markets work better for poor people. Focusing on the social contract between providers and users, it reviews several arrangements that have emerged, with a particular focus on the providers largely used by the poor. [from publisher]

MHealth4CBS in South Africa: A Review of the Role of Mobile Phone Technology for Monitoring and Evaluation of Community-Based Health Services

This study sought to understand what the field of mHealth had to offer, to explore how mHealth is implemented in practice and to use these two sources of information to reflect on the lessons and implications for implementing mHealth at scale for monitoring and evaluation of community based services and community health workers. [adapted from summary]

Health Workforce Activity: Engaging Health Workers to Improve Performance, Productivity, and Retention

This survey tests the use of employee engagement concepts in United States Agency for International Development-assisted countries to measure and improve health worker performance, productivity, and retention. [adapted from author]

World Health Statistics 2012

This report is the World Health Organization’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States1 and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals and associated targets. This year, it also includes highlight summaries on the topics of noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and civil registration coverage. [from introduction]

Baseline Assessment of HIV Service Provider Productivity and Efficiency in Tanzania

This baseline assessment of HIV/AIDS service providers gathered information on productivity and engagement to develop a set of improved human resource practices that will be integrated into ongoing HIV service delivery. [adapted from summary]

Monitoring the Building Blocks of Health Systems: A Handbook of Indicators and Their Measurement Strategies

This monitoring and evaluation framework shows how health inputs and processes (e.g. health workforce) are reflected in outputs (e.g. available services) that are reflected in outcomes (e.g. coverage) and impact (morbidity and mortality). It addresses monitoring and evaluation needs for different users and multiple purposes and is structured around the WHO framework that describes health systems in terms of six core components: service delivery, health workforce, health information systems, access to essential medicines, financing, and leadership/governance. [adapted from author]

Barriers and Facilitators to Routine Outcome Measurement by Allied Health Professionals in Practice: A Systematic Review

This systematic review investigates what helps and hinders routine outcome measurement of allied health professionals practice. [from abstract]

Evalutation of Physicians' Professional Performance: An Iterative Development and Validation Study of Multisource Feedback Instruments

There is a global need to assess physicians’ professional performance in actual clinical practice. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors, associations between self and other evaluations, and the number of evaluations needed for reliable assessment of a physician based on the three instruments used for the multisource assessment of physicians’ professional performance in the Netherlands. [from abstract]

Synthesis of Focus Group Discussions with Health Workers in Rwanda

This report summarizes the findings of a qualitative study on health workers’ performance and career in Rwanda to identify bottlenecks, strengths and shortcomings for human resources in the health sector, as perceived by both health workers and users of health services. [adapted from summary]

THEnet’s Evaluation Framework for Socially Accountable Health Professional Education

This document allows medical schools in low-resource areas to get a sense of where they are on the road towards greater social accountability and in their ability to increase impact on health and health services. [adapted from author]

HIV Management by Nurse Prescribers Compared with Doctors at a Paediatric Centre in Gaborone, Botswana

The objective of this study was to compare compliance with national paediatric HIV treatment guidelines between nurse prescribers and doctors at a paediatric referral centre in Gaborone, Botswana. [from author]

Survey of the Quality of Nursing Care in Several Districts in South Africa

The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the quality of nursing service and care in three health districts in the KwaZulu Natal Province and to identify deficiencies which could be addressed by education and training for nurses. [adapted from abstract]

Primary Health Care Staff's Perceptions of Childhood Tuberculosis: A Qualitative Study from Tanzania

This study explored primary health care staff’s perception, challenges and needs pertaining to the identification of children with tuberculosis in Muheza district in Tanzania. [from abstract]

Antenatal Care in Practice: An Exploratory Study in Antenatal Care Clinics in the Kilombero Valley, South-Eastern Tanzania

This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers’ antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers’ performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. [from abstract]

Missing the Essentials? Children Can Be Saved if They Are More Carefully Examined

A study from rural Tanzania shows that health workers usually don’t do the investigations that are required to identify some of the deadly illnesses that could be diagnosed and treat. [adapted from author]

Is Worker Effort Higher in Church-Based than in Government Health Facilities?

This brief reports the main results from a study aiming to compare worker effort levels in church-based and government health clinics in Tanzania. [from author]

How Much Time Do Nurses Have for Patients? A Longitudinal Study Quantifying Hospital Nurses' Patterns of Task Time Distribution and Interactions with Health Professionals

This article aimed to quantify how nurses distribute their time across tasks, with patients, in individual tasks, and engagement with other health care providers; and how work patterns changed over a two year period.

Discriminative Power of Patient Experience Surveys

Comparisons of patient experiences between providers are increasingly used as an index of provider performance. This study describes the ability of patient experience surveys to discriminate between healthcare providers for various patient groups and quality aspects, and reports the sample sizes required for reliable comparisons of provider scores. [adapted from abstract]

Evaluating the Quality of Care for Severe Pregnancy Complications: The WHO Near-Miss Approach for Maternal Health

This guide is intended for health-care workers, program managers and policy-makers who are responsible for the quality of maternal health care within a health-care facility or of the entire health system. It presents a standard approach for monitoring the implementation of critical interventions in maternal health care and proposes a systematic process for assessing the quality of care. In its entirety, the included methods and related processes constitute the WHO maternal near-miss approach. [from introduction]

Stop Making Excuses: Accountability for Maternal Health Care in South Africa

This report uses a human rights framework to examine accountability for maternal health care. It sets out several specific steps that South African and Eastern Cape governments should take to better integrate accountability into maternal health care programs and ensure their implementation through the health system. [from author]

Toward the Construction of Health Workforce Metrics for Latin America and the Caribbean

This paper describes an initiative to create a framework to analyze the field of human resources for health (HRH) in Latin America and the Caribbean, more specifically the development of a set of metrics and indicators to be used in monitoring HRH policies in the region. [adapted from author]

Effects of Performance Appraisal in the Norwegian Municipal Health Services: a Case Study

This research evaluates the potential effect of job motivation, learning and self-assessment through performance appraisals for health personnel. [from introduction]

Safety Culture in the Maternity Units: a Census Survey Using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire

The explicit need to focus on quality of care underpins the aim of this study to evaluate the safety culture and teamwork climate in the public maternity units of the 5 regional hospitals in Cyprus as measured by a validated safety attitudes tool. [from abstract]

Self-Assessment of Intercultural Communication Skills: A Survey of Physicians and Medical Students in Geneva, Switzerland

In order to gain a general picture of the intercultural challenges faced by Geneva physicians and inform the development of targeted training activities, we conducted a large-scale survey of physicians’ and medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and skills related to care of immigrant patients. This paper reports on respondents’ self-assessments of their clinical and intercultural skills. [from author]

Human Resources for Health (HRH) Indicator Compendium

This compendium provides a list of published indicators on human resources for health (HRH) organized according to the results framework of the CapacityPlus project. The objective of this compendium is to provide a tool for HRH systems strengthening practitioners interested in monitoring HRH projects and programs.