Gender Issues

Integration of Gender-Transformative Interventions into Health Professional Education Reform for the 21st century: Implications of an Expert Review

The paper’s broad aim is to encourage HPE [Health Professional education] leaders to make gender-transformative reforms in the current way of doing business and commit to themselves to countering gender discrimination and inequality. Interventions to counter gender discrimination should be seen as integral parts of institutional and instructional reforms and essential investments to scale up quality HPE and recruit and retain health workers in the systems that educate and employ them. Implementation challenges spanning financial, informational, and cultural barriers need consideration.

Integrating the PEPFAR Technical Considerations into Health Services to Improve the Clinical Management of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence in Kenya: Final Report

This final report documents achievements and lessons learned from the activity and includes the findings from a desk review and training needs assessment that informed the development of the new training module and supplemental training and performance support materials. [from resource]

Advancing Gender Equality in Health Systems

CapacityPlus developed learning tools to address the challenges of gender inequalities and discrimination in the health workforce and health professional education systems and promote gender- transformative principles in advocacy, policy-making, and program implementation. [from resource]

Gender and Health: Awareness, analysis and Action: A Virtual Course

The purpose of this course is to provide PAHO/WHO staff with basic skills on gender mainstreaming in health. The elearning builds familiarity with how gender operates as a determinant of health, guides guides participants through basic steps of applying gender responsive planning to their work, and introduces the basic skills to integrate gender concerns into public health practice.

mHealth and Gender: Making the Connection

The use of mHealth interventions withinin health systems research is increasing, with few taking into account the connections between gender and mHealth. This policy brief attempts to fill this gap by exploring key connections between mHealth and gender that need to be taken into account when conducting or implementing mHealth research and interventions.

The Invisible Economy and Gender Inequalities: The Importance of Measuring and Valuing Unpaid Work

Unpaid health and child care provided in the household, along with other activities that contribute to the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of members of a household, have a major impact on individual and public well-being, as well as on the human development potential of the countries. These economic activities, performed largely by women, take place outside the market and are therefore invisible in the economic statistics and national accounts systems of most countries. [from abstract]

Women Doctors and their Careers in a Large University Hospital in Spain at the Beginning of the 21st Century

The aim of this article was to compare the advance of women with that of men and determine the differences between hierarchical status and professional recognition achieved by women in medicine. Methods A retrospective study was carried out in the Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Spain, of the period from 1996 to 2008. [from abstract]

Family Planning 2011: Better Use of Existing Methods, New Strategies and More Informed Choices for Female Contraception

This paper explores recent developments in female contraception, using them to illustrate how adaptation of existing methods, improved service delivery and understanding contraceptive behaviour might increase contraceptive uptake and correct and consistent use, and how the development of new methods holds some promise for capitalizing on the potential non-contraceptive benefits. [from abstract]

Health Systems and Gender in Post-Conflict Contexts: Building Back Better?

As part of a larger research project that explores whether and how gender equity considerations are taken into account in the reconstruction and reform of health systems in conflict-affected and post conflict countries, we undertook a narrative literature review based on the questions “How gender sensitive is the reconstruction and reform of health systems in post conflict countries, and what factors need to be taken into consideration to build a gender equitable health system?” We used the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) six building blocks as a framework for our analysis; these six b

Multisectoral Responses to Gender-based Violence in Mozambique

The complex constellation of factors that underlie and reinforce gender-based violence (GBV) warrants a strong multi-level and multisectoral response. This technical brief explores Pathfinder’s experience pioneering a multisectoral approach to GBV prevention and response across two projects in Mozambique, and outlines key lessons learned and next steps. [from abstract]

Transforming Gender Norms, Roles, and Power Dynamics for Better Health: Gender-integrated Programs Reference Document

This review presents evidence showing how gender-integrated programming influences health outcomes
in low- and middle-income countries: in particular, reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child, and adolescent
health (RMNCH+A); HIV prevention and AIDS response; gender-based violence (GBV); tuberculosis
(TB); and universal health coverage (UHC).

Please find the link to the Transforming Gender Norms, Roles, and Power Dynamics for Better Health: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Gender-integrated Health Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries:

Transforming Gender Norms, Roles, and Power Dynamics for Better Health: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Gender-integrated Health Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

This review presents evidence showing how gender-integrated programming influences health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: in particular, reproductive, maternal, neonatal, child, and adolescent health; HIV prevention and AIDS response; gender-based violence; tuberculosis; and universal health coverage.[from abstract]

Please find the link to the Transforming Gender Norms, Roles, and Power Dynamics for Better Health: Gender-integrated Programs Reference Document:

Intimate Partner Violence: How Should Health Systems Respond?

IPV is important to health systems because of the wide-ranging and serious health effects experienced by exposed women, as well as the unique opportunity afforded to healthcare providers to enquire about violence. [from introduction]

Effect of Nursing Educational Guidelines on Women’s Awareness, Health Practices and Beliefs Regarding Prevention and Early Detection of Breast and Cervical Cancer

To evaluate the effect of nursing educational guidelines on women’s awareness, health practices and beliefs regarding the prevention and early detection of breast and cervical cancer. [from abstract]

Reforming Health Education Institutions to Eliminate Gender Discrimination

CapacityPlus compiled and analyzed literature on gender discrimination in higher education, including health worker preservice education. Additional information was gathered by contacting institution staff and reviewing institutional websites. Presented at the 2014 Prince Mahidol Award Conference in Pattaya, Thailand on January 27–31, 2014, this poster summarizes the review, highlights lessons learned by the Kenya Medical Training College, and recommends key actions that stakeholders can take at institutional and governmental levels to counter gender discrimination.

Gender and Health Systems Strengthening

By the end of the course, the learner will understand how health systems components interact with each other, how gender plays a role in each health systems component, and how to address these gender issues in health systems strengthening activities in order to improve health and social outcomes. [from introduction]

HIV Prevention for Women in Kenya: An Advocacy Guide for Gender-Sensitive Microbicide Introduction

This document is a guide for advocating for attention to gender issues in future microbicide introduction. The guide is based on the findings from a gender analysis conducted by FHI 360 in Kenya in 2012–2013. The purpose of this analysis was to examine how gender norms and inequalities may affect women’s access to and use of a microbicide product. [from introduction]

A Pocket Guide to Thinking About Gender & Vaginal Microbicides in South Africa

This pocket card, created with input from the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) Men’s and Women’s Sectors, is designed to build support for a gender-integrated microbicides rollout among both community members and policy makers. [from introduction]

Time to Address Gender Discrimination and Inequality in the Health Workforce

This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to
more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance
for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers
specific case examples. [from abstract]

Kenyan Women Medical Doctors and Their Motivations to Pursue International Research Training

Through interviews, researchers found Kenyan women medical clinical researchers shared similar motivations as US women but differed as well. Kenyan medical doctors pursued health research within a context of limited resources, but the ability to balance work and family while contributing to public health through research and leadership was highly valued. [adapted from abstract]

Report on the Society for Family Health Gender Assessment

To promote organizational learning and action related to political will and accountability, leadership and management, technical capacity, organizational culture, human resources policies and programs that promote gender equality, non-discrimination, and equal opportunity and treatment with respect to recruitment, hiring, training, remuneration, conditions of work,and programming at Society for Family Health. [from abstract]

Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence. The nurse-family partnership is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes, and this study evaluates the effectiveness of this health worker approach on reducing intimate partner violence in The Netherlands. [adapted from author]

Health Sector Response to Gender-based Violence: An assessment of the Asia Pacific Region

This document reports the outcome of an assessment and review of existing approaches to and models of health sector responses to gender-based violence in the Asia Pacific region. [adapted from author]

Why We Must Provide Better Support for Pakistan's Female Frontline Health Workers

This article summarizes the key role that lady health workers play in polio eradication; outlines the problems faced by these workers such as the risk to their lives through shootings and bombings, the lack of a living wage and dearth of advancement opportunities; and offers suggestions to improve the situation.

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among Health Care Professionals in the Gambia: A Multi-Ethnic Study

Health care professionals are expected to be aware of how to identify and manage the consequences of female genital mutilation in order to ensure that those affected by the practice receive quality health care, and their integration and legitimacy within the communities allow them to play a key role in the prevention of the practice. This study sought to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding female genital mutilation among health workers in rural settings in Gambia. [adapted from abstract]

Role of Social Geography on Lady Health Workers' Mobility and Effectiveness in Pakistan

This study explores whether and how socio-cultural factors such as influence of gendered norms and extended family relationships impact lady health workers’ home-visit rates. [adapted from abstract]

Women in the Rural Medical Academic Workforce

This study assessed the role of women as fractional full-time equivalent rural academics in the context of significant health workforce shortage and increasing academic demand and concluded that female doctors who are willing to take on part-time work are supporting the rural medical teaching workforce. [adapted from abstract]

Role of Community-Based Health Planning and Services Strategy in Involving Males in the Provision of Family Planning Services: A Qualitative Study in Southern Ghana

This study evaluated the effect of a program that trained community health nurses and relocated them to the community to provide door-to-door services on the level of male involvement in family planning services. [adapted from author]

Caring for Trafficked Persons: Guidance for Health Providers

This document aims to provide practical, non-clinical guidance to help concerned health providers understand the phenomenon of human trafficking, recognize some of the health problems associated with trafficking and consider safe and appropriate approaches to providing health care for trafficked persons. It outlines the health provider’s role in providing care and describes some of the limitations of his or her responsibility to assist. [adapted from introduction]

Screening and Counselling in the Primary Care Setting for Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence (WEAVE): A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

This study assessed whether brief counselling from family doctors trained to respond to women identified through intimate partner violence screening would increase women’s quality of life, safety planning and behavior, and mental health. [from summary]