Human Resources Management

Impact of Health Sector Reform on Public Sector Health Worker Motivation in Zimbabwe

This paper describes the specific policy measures that the Zimbabwean government has recently implemented to try to improve health sector performance, and promote higher levels of motivation amongst public sector health care workers. The overall reform package is to include financial reforms (user fees and social insurance), strengthening of health management, liberalization and regulation of the private health sector, decentralization, and contracting out. Unfortunately, the process of reform implementation in Zimbabwe and the government’s poor communication with workers, combined with a conflict between local cultures and the measures being implemented, has undermined the potentially positive effect of reforms on health worker motivation.

Reform of Primary Health Care in Kazakhstan and the Effects on Primary Health Care Worker Motivation: the Case of Zhezkazgan Region

This paper reports the experiences of primary care reform in the Zhezkazgan region of Kazakhstan. After the collapse of the Soviet regime, Kazakhstan undertook a radical program of reform to restructure the health sector, making primary care the centerpiece of their health reform agenda. The reforms included the creation of independent family group practices financed on a capitation basis directly from the Ministry of Health, allowing free choice of primary care providers through open enrollment, and creating a non-governmental primary care physician association. This program has had remarkable success in improving motivation among primary health care workers.

Measuring Health Worker Motivation in Developing Countries

A conceptual framework of motivation processes is presented and used to identify strategies and options for the measurement of health worker motivation in developing countries. Measures of motivation are broadly organized into determinant and consequent categories, and determinants are further distinguished in terms of measures that influence worker–organization goal congruence (“will do” motivation) and those directed toward goal striving (“can do” motivation).

Development of Tools to Measure the Determinants and Consequences of Health Worker Motivation in Developing Countries

Problems related to health worker motivation are remarkably pervasive, but to-date little attention has been paid to them in developing and transition countries. Basic tools to measure the determinants and consequences of motivation have not been adapted to contexts outside the industrialized world. This paper assesses the feasibility of transferring psychometric tools, typically used in industrialized countries to measure motivational processes, to other contexts. The paper draws upon two field studies conducted in two hospitals in the Republic of Georgia and two hospitals in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Public Sector Health Worker Motivation and Health Sector Reform: a Conceptual Framework

This paper offers a conceptual framework for considering the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation. It suggests that worker motivation is influenced not only by specific incentive schemes targeted at workers, but also by the whole range of health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, channels of accountability, etc.

Improving Health Workforce Performance

As part of the High-Level Forum on the Health Millennium Development Goals, this issue paper discusses improving health workforce performance as a key factor in meeting MDGs. The required scaling up of interventions towards the MDGs depends on effective health services delivery systems (HSDS). The availability, the skills, the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of health workers are key to well-functioning HSDS. [adapted from author]

Developing and Testing an Instrument for Identifying Performance Incentives in the Greek Health Care Sector

In the era of cost containment, managers are constantly pursuing increased organizational performance and productivity by aiming at the obvious target, i.e. the workforce. The health care sector, in which production processes are more complicated compared to other industries, is not an exception. In light of recent legislation in Greece in which efficiency improvement and achievement of specific performance targets are identified as undisputable health system goals, the purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for investigating the attitudes of Greek physicians, nurses and administrative personnel towards job-related aspects, and the extent to which these motivate them to improve performance and increase productivity.

Increasing the Motivation of Health Care Workers

To support good performance, health care workers need clear job expectations, up-to-date knowledge and skills, adequate equipment and supplies, constructive feedback and a caring supervisor (Luoma and Crigler, 2002). Workers also need motivation, especially when some of the other factors that support good performance are lacking. Indeed, highly motivated individuals can often overcome obstacles such as poor working conditions, personal safety concerns and inadequate equipment. Given the current challenges related to human resources for health (HRH) in most developing countries (Joint Learning Initiative, 2004), helping workers to be as productive as possible in the face of such obstacles can be an important outcome of increased motivation.

Supporting the Retention of Health Resources for Health: SACD Policy Context

This report presents a review of issues in the regional policy context that are of relevance to the retention of human resources for the health sector (HRH) within the region, based on a rapid appraisal in selected countries and at regional level. This work specifically focussed on the actions needed to stem the flow of international migration by encouraging the retention of health staff within countries. A particular concern raised across countries is staff retention in the public and rural services that preferentially serve the poorest populations. Importantly, policy documents and national

High-Performing Reproductive Healthcare Facilities in Kenya: Why They Exceed Expectations

This report summarizes findings from Phase 2 of a two-phase case study to determine why certain reproductive healthcare facilities in low-resource settings perform better than others. The study examined the characteristics, behaviors, and coping strategies of high-performing reproductive healthcare facilities in Kenya, exploring elements of resilience and factors influencing performance.

Health Worker Motivation in Africa: the Role of Non-Financial Incentives and Human Resource Management Tools

There is a serious human resource crisis in the health sector in developing countries, particularly in Africa. One of the challenges is the low motivation of health workers. Experience and the evidence suggest that any comprehensive strategy to maximize health worker motivation in a developing country context has to involve a mix of financial and non-financial incentives. This study assesses the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in two cases, in Benin and Kenya. [abstract]

Determinants of Health Worker Motivation in Tblisi, Georgia: a 360 Degree Assessment in Two Hospitals

This paper represents the second phase of a larger study examining health worker motivation in two hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. The overall objective of the 360 degree assessment was to begin to identify the major organizational, situational, and individual factors associated with health worker motivation, and to better understand how major constituencies (i.e., managers, supervisors, workers, and patients) perceive the hospital/work environment. Specific objectives of this study component were to: assess congruence between managers, supervisors and workers on perceptions of hospital goals; compare perceptions of hospital and worker characteristics among types of workers (physician, nurse, other) and levels of respondents (managers, supervisors, workers, patients); and identify possible factors for stimulating good performance and possible interventions for enhancing motivation.

Nurse Retention and Recruitment: Developing a Motivated Workforce

Recruiting and keeping the right staff are key challenges for health policy-makers. The performance and quality of a health system ultimately depend on the quality and motivation of health human resources. Therefore, recruitment and retention problems should be appropriately addressed, as nursing staff shortages and low motivation are likely to have adverse effects on the delivery of health services and the outcome of care. The main objective of this paper is to examine how to develop and retain a motivated nursing workforce. [author’s description]

What Makes a Good Employer?

This document summarises underlying evidence and issues related to good human resource management (HRM)in the health sector with reference to: (a) indicators of performance and measurement of nursing outcomes; (b) performance issues related to individuals and teams; and (c) employee engagement, commitment and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). There are two key themes: What are the interventions and indicators associated with good HRM outcomes, and how can these be measured? [author’s description]

Health Worker Motivation and Health Sector Reform

It is becoming increasing important that policymakers be aware of health worker motivation and it’s impact on health sector performance. Health care delivery is highly labor-intensive, and service quality, efficiency, and equity are all directly mediated by workers’ willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. While resource availability and worker competencies are essential, decision makers should know that they are not sufficient in themselves to ensure desired worker performance. Worker performance is also dependent on workers’ level of motivation stimulating them to come to work regularly, work diligently, and be flexible and willing to carry out the necessary tasks.

Terms of Employment and Working Conditions in Health Sector Reforms

This report has been prepared by the International Labour Office as the basis for discussions at the Joint Meeting on Terms of Employment and Working Conditions in Health Sector Reforms. It reviews the impact of health sector reforms on health workers and the implications of changes in employment and pay, labour relations, working conditions and terms of employment on the general performance of health systems in the light of the links between health policy, human health and the economy. [preface]

We Need Respect: Experiences of Internationally Recruited Nurses in the UK

The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) commissioned this report into the experiences of internationally recruited nurses (IRNs) working in the UK. The study explores the motivations and experiences of IRNs in order to understand why overseas nurses come to work in the UK, what experiences they undergo and whether they plan to stay in the UK, return to their countries of origin or go to another country to work after a short period. [from executive summary]

Match Between Motivation and Performance Management of Health Sector Workers in Mali

In Mali, operational research was conducted to identify the match between motivation and the range and use of performance management activities. The study showed that the main motivators of health workers were related to responsibility, training and recognition, next to salary. These can be influenced by performance management (job descriptions, supervisions, continuous education and performance appraisal).

In-depth Analysis of Individual Determinants and Outcomes of Health Worker Motivation in Two Jordanian Hospitals

This paper represents one of three components of a larger study examining health worker motivation in two hospitals in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The goal of this in-depth analysis was to assess which motivational determinants seemed to most influence outcomes of the motivational process. Using self administered, quantitative questionnaires to workers and supervisors, data were collected on 506 workers in two Jordanian hospitals. Motivational outcomes were measured in terms of what workers do (performance), what they feel (affective motivation, such as satisfaction and commitment) and what they think (cognitive motivation).

Health Worker Motivation in Jordan and Georgia: A Synthesis of Results

Health worker motivation has the potential to have a large impact on health systems performance, yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This study, conducted in Jordan and Georgia focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker’s motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess individual differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors). Although the two countries have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, many similarities existed among key determinants between the two countries.

Improving Motivation Among Primary Health Care Workers in Tanzania: A Health Worker Perspective

The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of health workers working in the primary health care facilities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, in terms of their motivation to work, satisfaction and frustration, and to identify areas for sustainable improvement to the services they provide.

Effect of Performance-Related Pay of Hospital Doctors on Hospital Behaviour: A Case Study From Shandong, China

With the recognition that public hospitals are often productively inefficient, reforms have taken place worldwide to increase their administrative autonomy and financial responsibility. Reforms in China have been some of the most radical: the government budget for public hospitals was fixed, and hospitals had to rely on charges to fill their financing gap. Accompanying these changes was the widespread introduction of performance-related pay for hospital doctors, termed the “bonus” system. While the policy objective was to improve productivity and cost recovery, it is likely that the incentive to increase the quantity of care provided would operate regardless of whether the care was medically necessary.

Pay and Non-Pay Incentives, Performance and Motivation

This paper provides an overview of evidence of the effects of incentives on the performance and motivation of independent health professionals and health workers.

Creating a Work Climate that Motivates Staff and Improves Performance

This issue outlines the connections between work climate, employee motivation, and performance. It describes how managers can assess the climate in their work group and shows how they can use the results to make changes in leadership and management practices that will motivate their group to do the best work possible and improve results. [editor’s description]

What Motivates Lay Volunteers in High Burden but Resource-Limited Tuberculosis Control Programmes? Perceptions from the Northern Cape province, South Africa

This study explored the factors that motivate lay volunteers to join tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in high burden but resource-limited settings. [adapted from abstract]

Economic Incentive in Community Nursing: Attraction, Rejection or Indifference?

Using incentives and disincentives to direct individuals’ energies and behaviour is common practice in all work settings, of which the health care system is no exception. The range and influence of economic incentives/disincentives affecting community nurses are the subject of this discussion paper. The tendency by nurses to disregard, and in many cases, deny a direct impact of economic incentives/disincentives on their motivation and professional conduct is of particular interest. The goal of recent research was to determine if economic incentives/disincentives in community nursing exist, whether they have a perceivable impact and in what areas.

Factors Affecting the Performance of Maternal Health Care Providers in Armenia

Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives) in two regions of Armenia. [from abstract]

Factors that Influence Students in Choosing Rural Nursing Practice: A Pilot Study

This pilot study focused on self-identified factors of nursing students who expressed an interest in rural practice post-graduation. The sample included students from the USA and Canada, who were enrolled in graduate and undergraduate programs of nursing, and were attending an international rural nursing conference. [From abstract]

Weakest Link: Competence and Prestige as Constraints to Referral by Isolated Nurses in Rural Niger

For a health district to function, referral from health centres to district hospitals is critical. In many developing countries referral systems perform well below expectations. Niger is not an exception in this matter. Beyond obvious problems of cost and access this study shows to what extent the behaviour of the health worker in its interaction with the patient can be a barrier of its own. [from abstract]

Identifying Factors for Job Motivation of Rural Health Workers in North Viet Nam

To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. [from abstract]