Browse by Geographic Focus

Team Players: Building the Skills of Local Health Care Planners

Training and innovative tools were key to the success of the Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project, along with small funding increases. The tools and strategies allowed the districts of Rufiji and Morogoro to target their new resources on the largest contributors to the burden of disease and on health care delivery. The most dramatic result, among many, has been an average decline in child mortality of more than 40%. [from author]

Control of Tuberculosis in an Urban Setting in Nepal: Public-Private Partnership

The objective of this document is to implement and evaluate a public–private partnership to deliver the internationally recommended strategy DOTS for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in Lalitpur municipality, Nepal, where it is estimated that 50% of patients with TB are managed in the private sector. [author’s description]

Scaling Up Antiretroviral Treatment in the Public Sector in Nigeria: A Comprehensive Analysis of Resource Requirements

This report presents estimates of the total cost of providing comprehensive antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in the public sector in Nigeria, using the AIDSTREATCOST model to estimate the cost of providing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VDT), and Opportunistic Infection (OI) treatment, and other resource requirements for implementing the national antiretroviral (ARV) treatment program

Costs of Reproductive Health Services Provided by Four CHAG Hospitals

The Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) is a large faith-based NGO which currently serves an estimated 35 percent of the Ghanaian population, mainly in remote rural areas. CHAG’s financial sustainability is threatened due to declining donations from missionary groups and donor agencies, uncertain support from government, and low cost recovery in member facilities. Although knowledge of costs is essential to program management, CHAG members had no information on the costs of the services they provided. Thus, CHAG had no economic benchmarks for evaluating efforts to control costs, no denominator for calculating cost recovery for different services, and no empirical data on service costs that could be used to approach donors and the Ghanaian government with requests for funding.

Maintenance of Competence of Rural District Hospital Medical Practitioners

The maintenance of competence by rural district hospital medical practitioners is a challenge faced by all countries and, most acutely, by resource-poor nations. It is a vital element in addressing the disparity between rural and urban health care in South Africa. The aim of this study was to define expert consensus on the content and methods most suitable for the maintenance of competence by rural district hospital practitioners in the Western Cape province of South Africa. [author’s description]

Technical Review of Health Service Delivery at District Level

The 2003 technical review report covers only one main strategy: district health services. It looks at district health service performance from the viewpoint of Council Health Management Teams (CHMT) and LG. The report presents a short general appraisal of district health services (section 1). Planning and budgeting for better health (section 2) looks at what the requirements are for a performing planning and budgeting process (section 2.1, including guidelines and process) and what information should be available at council level to develop a comprehensive council health plan (section 2.2). Issues related to implementing the council health plan (section 3) include financial resources (3.1), non-financial resources (3.2), systems development (3.3) and service delivery (3.4).

Qualitative Study on the Relationship Between Doctors and Nurses Offering Primary Health at KwaNobuhle (Uitenhage)

Historically, the doctor-nurse relationship is an unequal one characterised by the dominance of the doctor, with nurses assuming a position of lower status and dependence on physicians. Both professions have however demonstrated a willingness to promote teamwork in hospitals. This was a descriptive qualitative study in which the experiences of Kwa-Nobuhle general practitioners and professional nurses were explored. [from author’s description]

Combine Learning Approaches to Improve Maternal Care

A comparison showed that two models for teaching maternal care skills to providers resulted in similarly modest improvements in knowledge and performance. However, maternal care skills remained weak overall. Training should incorporate the best elements of the two approaches while seeking improvements in basic knowledge of maternal care. [author’s description]

Study of Health Workers' Knowledge and Practices Regarding Leprosy Care and Control at Primary Care Clinics in the Eerstehoek Area of Gert Sibande District in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

A successful leprosy care and control program within the general healthcare services at the PHC level is highly dependent upon the HWs having adequate knowledge of, and practical training on, leprosy. This study describes PHC workers’ knowledge of leprosy, and their practical involvement in leprosy care and control activities at PHC clinics in the Eerstehoek area of Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, where leprosy still occurs. [author’s description]

Knowledge and Skills Gap of Medical Practitioners Delivering District Hospital Services in the Western Cape, South Africa

Health service managers in the Western Cape requested a skills audit of medical officers in district hospitals to identify a possible gap in competencies that may impact on service delivery. The aim of this study was thus to identify the knowledge and skills of medical practitioners delivering these services in the Western Cape and to compare them with service needs in order to make recommendations for education and training. This article reports on the results of the knowledge and skills gap analysis, while the results of the district hospital performance data and in-depth interviews are reported elsewhere.

South African Legislation on Traditional Medicine

This policy brief discusses the efforts of the South African government to create legislation for the country’s traditional medicine, and provides a synopsis of national initiatives that are transforming the field of traditional knowledge. It also examines what these changes mean for the users of traditional medicines. [author’s description]

Integrating Vertical Health Programmes into Sector Wide Approaches: Experiences and Lessons

This paper is a desk study which looks at experiences of integrating vertical health programmes into national delivery systems where government and donors have adopted a sector wide approach (SWAp) to supporting health sector reform. It was commissioned to facilitate decision making in SDC regarding future possible integration of the Tanzania Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme into national delivery systems and the SWAp process.[author’s description]

Tanzania Joint Health Technical Review 2002: HMIS Sub-Group Final Report

This report reviews the implementation of a Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Tanzania to determine its success, identify issues and constraints, asses key issues, and identify additional capacity requirements.

Report on Human Resources: Tanzania Joint Health Sector Review 2003

The human resources for health strategy in the context of ongoing reforms, including HRH planning, development and management was one of the major components that was undertaken as part of the 2002 review of the health sector. The main objective was to propose strategies and approaches for developing a new and implementable long term plan which should address current health sector and local government reform needs and requirements. [author’s description]

Involvement of Private General Practitioners in Visiting Primary Healthcare Clinics

The primary healthcare system was adopted as the vehicle of healthcare delivery and a means of reaching the larger part of the population in South Africa in 1994. One of the strategies employed in providing a comprehensive service is the incorporation of visits to clinics by doctors in support of other members of the primary healthcare team, particularly nurses. A successful collaboration at this level brings benefit to everyone involved, particularly patients. Clear expectations and a confusion of roles leads to lack of teamwork, thus it is important to have clearly established models for such involvement. [abstract]

Export Health Worker? For Uganda, an Indecent Proposal Until...

This paper challenges the decision by the Government of Uganda to export health workers to developed countries. It argues that while the Ugandan National Health Policy emphasises strengthening the numbers of health personnel in order to be able to provide a minimum health care package and to redress the imbalances in distribution of skilled staff, it is totally contradictory to start exporting the few personnel available.

Egypt Service Provision Assessment Survey 2004

The 2004 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA 2004) survey was designed to collect informationon the provision of reproductive health and child health services in Egypt in order to complement the information obtained through the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey. The ESPA 2004 collected information on the preparedness of health facilities in Egypt to provide high quality care to clients seeking services for family planning, maternal health, child health, and sexually transmitted infections. A representative sample of 659 clinics of all types of facilities, in both government and nongovernmental organization facilities, was assessed. The survey included, in addition to the resources of the facilities, interviews with service providers, observations of consultations between the providers and clients, and interviews with clients after they were served. The information included in this report is important for identifying areas of intervention that will help improve the quality of family planning, maternal health, and child health services provided to clients. [preface]

Supporting the Retention of Health Resources for Health: SACD Policy Context

This report presents a review of issues in the regional policy context that are of relevance to the retention of human resources for the health sector (HRH) within the region, based on a rapid appraisal in selected countries and at regional level. This work specifically focussed on the actions needed to stem the flow of international migration by encouraging the retention of health staff within countries. A particular concern raised across countries is staff retention in the public and rural services that preferentially serve the poorest populations. Importantly, policy documents and national

What Interventions Do South African Qualified Doctors Think Will Retain Them in Rural Hospitals of the Limpopo Province of South Africa?

The Department of Health in South Africa has attempted to address the shortage of rural doctors by introducing various interventions, including an increase in salaries, introduction of scarce skills and rural allowances, the deployment of foreign doctors, and upgrading of clinics and hospitals. Despite these, the maldistribution of doctors working in South Africa has not improved significantly. The main objectives of this study were to identify interventions as proposed by doctors in the rural Limpopo province of South Africa and to develop recommendations based on these. [from introduction]

How are Health Professionals Earning Their Living in Malawi?

The migration of health professionals from southern Africa to developed nations is negatively affecting the delivery of health care services in the source countries. Oftentimes however, it is the reasons for the out-migration that have been described in the literature. The work and domestic situations of those health professionals continuing to serve in their posts have not been adequately studied. The present study utilized a qualitative data collection and analysis method. This was achieved through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health professionals and administrators to determine the challenges they face and the coping systems they resort to and the perceptions towards those coping methods. [author’s description]

Cost of Health Professionals' Brain Drain in Kenya

Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. [author’s description]

Migration, Retention and Return of Health Professionals - the Zambian Case: the Challenge of Managing a Health Care System in Crisis

This presentation was part of the Health in Foreign Policy Forum 2006. It covers the face of the human resource for health crisis in Zambia, the migration of health professionals, the impact on health service delivery, current initiatives, country-level solutions, challenges to implementing the HRH strategic plan and options to mitigate the HR crisis in developing countries and the global level. [adapted from author]

Human Resources for Health in the WHO European Region

This document attempts to review the HRH situation in the WHO European Region. Section 2 addresses the problems associated with varying definitions to ensure a common understanding of the issues involved. In section 3, a number of key methodological issues (the relevance of HRH, education, management, regulation, etc.,) are analyzed. Section 4 summarizes the key HRH facts and figures for the region. In conclusion, section 5 describes the way forward and the main EURO policy proposals for supporting member states in this complex sphere. [author’s description]

Human Resources for Health in Europe

This book examines some of the major challenges facing health care professions in Europe and the potential responses to these challenges. The authors document how health care systems in Europe are confronting existing challenges in relation to the health workforce and identify the strategies that are likely to be most effective in optimizing the management of health professionals in the future. [from publisher]

Defining a Performance Improvement Intervention for Kenya Reproductive Health Supervisors: Results of a Performance Analysis

The competency-based approach used in JHPIEGO-supported training improves performance by ensuring that trainees go back to their worksites with the knowledge and skills required to provide FP services. Once back at the workplace, however, participants often face constraints that limit their ability to provide quality services. Factors that can affect the performance of the healthcare provider include: job expectations, performance feedback, supplies and equipment, motivation, possessing the knowledge and skills to provide services, and supervision.

Evaluation of the Institutionalization of Family Planning/ Reproductive Health Inservice Training in Bolivia

Beginning in 1992, JHPIEGO worked in close collaboration with the Bolivia Ministry of Health (MOH) to develop an integrated family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) training network throughout the country. The focus of the assistance was the establishment of nine national training centers (NTCs) for inservice training conducted by physician-nurse teams and located at departmental maternity hospitals in departmental capitals. By 2000, the government of Bolivia and other stakeholders had shifted the training emphasis to preservice education efforts.

Strengthening Preservice Midwifery Education in Ghana: Achievements and Phase 2 Expansion Plans

JHPIEGO and the United States Agency for International Development/Ghana, has now focused on strengthening preservice education for nurses and midwives who provide FP/reproductive health (RH) and safe motherhood services. The phased strategy will ultimately strengthen preservice classroom and clinical training components in all ten midwifery training schools (MTS) in Ghana. To clarify the needs of the training institutions and guide program planning, two needs assessments were conducted at the MTS in Kumasi and Koforidua.

Establishing Integrated Family Planning/Reproductive Health Preservice and Inservice National Clinical Training Systems in Turkey

JHPIEGO has been working since 1991 to support the development of a national integrated clinical training system used for both family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) preservice education and inservice training in Turkey.

Institutionalization of Reproductive Health Preservice Education in the Philippines: An Evaluation of Programmatic Effort, 1987-1998

From 1987 to 1998, JHPIEGO, through its Training in Reproductive Health (TRH) Project, collaborated with the Association of Deans of Philippine Colleges of Nursing (ADPCN) and the Association of Philippine Schools of Midwifery (APSOM) to strengthen preservice nursing and midwifery education in the Philippines. Between 1987 and 1994, JHPIEGO initiated activities to strengthen family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) and enhance trainer/faculty development in five nursing schools and five midwifery schools.

Matched Case-Control Evaluation of the Knowledge and Skills of Midwives in Ghana Two Years after Graduation

JHPIEGO’s strategies for strengthening Ghanaian preservice education in family planning/reproductive health and essential maternal and neonatal care have included: developing and implementing a standardized, competency-based curriculum; improving knowledge and skills of tutors and clinical trainers/preceptors; reinforcing service delivery sites used for clinical practice; and providing schools and clinical training sites with anatomic models and supporting training materials. [adapted from author]