Browse by Geographic Focus

Rapid Assessment of Community Health Worker Knowledge Compared with Knowledge of Doctors and Nurses

This study analyzed and compared the knowledge base of trained community health workers with that of doctors and nurses in Afghanistan to determine the differences in their abilities to provide healthcare and health information to patients.

Performance-Based Reimbursement Scheme: a Final Report of a Pilot Study

The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP) developed a system ensuring better access of the health services to the poorest segment of the population, along with raising revenue by providing fee-for services to the better off population. The former strategy highlights a safety net policy for the poorest segment, who are identified by participatory rapid appraisal technique and handed out a health benefit card. The latter strategy helps the NGOs to revise their service charges according to local demand and other factors. This report analyzes this pilot effort and its drawbacks and makes recommendations based on lessons learned. [adapted from author]

Nursing Staff Dynamics and Implications for Maternal Health Provision in Public Health Facilities in the Context of HIV/AIDS

This study aimed to document nursing staff dynamics in maternal health services, and to explore the factors associated with these dynamics. We have used the term nursing staffing dynamics to encompass a range of human resource processes including staff turnover, absenteeism, average length of stay in a facility, vacancy rates and workload. The study was carried out in Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces in South Africa. [author’s description]

One Million More: Mobilising the African Diaspora Healthcare Professionals for Capacity Building in Africa

One Million More presents some of the interventions, debates, discussions and conclusions of a conference held in London.

Managing Health Professional Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a Stakeholder Inquiry into Policy Options

Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? [author’s description]

Likely Benefit of Using Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) for Human Resources Management in the Health Sector of Bangladesh

This study demonstrates how Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) can be used as a human resources planning and management tool for improving decisions at all levels of health services about the provision, allocation and deployment of staff. [from abstract]

Rising to the Challenges of Human Resources for Health in Kenya: Developing Empirical Evidence for Policy Making

This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the human resources for health (HRH) currently available and required to reach the targets set by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in both the public sector and the faith-based organizations (FBOs) in Kenya. A stratified convenience sample of health facilities at all levels of care (primary, secondary, tertiary) in each of the eight provinces was selected for the assessment. Detailed information on human resources and provision of services related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, maternal health, and child health was collected.

Financial and Economic Costs of Scaling Up the Provision of HAART to HIV-Infected Health Care Workers in KwaZulu-Natal

This study provides evidence on the cost of providing HAART to health care workers and suggests that this strategy could reduce absenteeism and alleviate future staff shortages at moderate cost to hospitals. This is crucial, given the impending human resources crisis in health care in South Africa and the growing burden of HIV/AIDS. These cost estimates should be good indicators of the costs of extending antiretroviral therapy to health care workers in public-sector hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. [author’s description]

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Establishing a Distance-Education Programme for Health Personnel in Swaziland

There is a growing conviction among policy-makers that the availability of adequate numbers of well-trained and motivated human resources is a key determinant of health system’s capacity to achieve their health, responsiveness and fairness-improving goals. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost, effectiveness and incremental cost effectiveness ratios of various distance-education strategies for the health sector in Swaziland; and recommend the most cost-effective option. [abstract]

Can Biomedical and Traditional Health Care Providers Work Together? Zambian Practitioners Experiences and Attitudes Towards Collaboration in Relation to STIs and HIV/AIDS Care: a Cross-Sectional Study

The shortage of trained health professionals is among the main obstacles to strengthening low-income countries health systems and to scaling up HIV/AIDS control efforts. Traditional health practitioners are increasingly depicted as key resources to HIV/AIDS prevention and care. An appropriate and effective response to the HIV/AIDS crisis requires reconsideration of the collaboration between traditional and biomedical health providers (THPs and BHPs). The aim of this paper is to explore biomedical and traditional health practitioners experiences of and attitudes towards collaboration and to identify obstacles and potential opportunities for them to collaborate regarding care for patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. [author’s description]

Effect of Health Decentralization, Financing and Governance in Mexico

This cross-sectional study was carried out in four states that were selected according to geopolitical and administrative criteria to identify the effects of decentralization on health financing and governance policies in Mexico from the perspective of users and providers. The report discusses the effect of decentralization on health service providers and community involvement. Data collection was performed using in-depth interviews with health system key personnel and community leaders, consensus techniques and document analyses. [adapted from author]

Skilled Birth Attendants Accepted at Home Deliveries in Bangladesh

An NSDP survey shows strong support for the use of skilled birth attendants and willingness to pay for their services. Widespread use of SBAs holds much promise in helping to meet the UN Millennium Development goal of reducing the maternal mortality rate to around 140 by 2015. The survey results, which also indicate some barriers to SBA use, have enabled the design of an appropriate pilot intervention. [from introduction]

Results from Study of Clinical Staff Turnover Suggest New HR Strategies

The NGOs that comprise the USAID-funded NGO Service Delivery Program must control costs in order to improve their cost recovery rates. Costs associatied with high staff turnover are an important variable operating expense. An NSDP study of staff turnover has produced interesting findings contributing to new staff retention strategies. [introduction]

Finding Private-Sector Support for Primary Health Care in Bangladesh

NGOs that provide basic health care to the poor must become less dependent on donor support by diversifying their funding. The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP), a USAID-funded health care program in Bangladesh, is working with NGOs to find corporate sponsorship. [publisher’s description]

DREAM: An Integrated Faith-Based Initiative to Treat HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

[This case study evaluates the] Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition (DREAM) program, created by the Community of Sant’Egidio to fight AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. The project takes a holistic approach, combining Highly Active Anti- Retroviral Therapy (HAART) with the treatment of malnutrition, tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted diseases. It also strongly emphasizes health education at all levels. DREAM aims to achieve its goals in line with the gold standard for HIV treatment and care. [author’s description]

Unraveling the Factors Behind the Growth of the Indonesian Family Planning Private Sector

This case study documents Indonesia’s family planning experience with a view to understanding the factors and conditions that led to the remarkable growth in the private sector’s role in delivering family planning services. [from abstract]

Health Systems in Transition: Learning from Experience

The paper outlines a conceptual framework that integrates the key strategies that must be addressed and linked if policy-makers are to create the kinds of health care system to which the citizens of [central and eastern Europe and Eurasia] are entitled. It examines how financing, coordinated service delivery and quality measures matter independently, and it highlights the need to interweave them effectively with citizen and community participation mechanisms and a far-reaching concern for public health. It also reviews the complex issues that hinder or help the implementation of reforms and suggests how an understanding of context, stakeholders and capacity will be critical to delivering change.

Medical Leave: the Exodus of Health Professionals from Zimbabwe

The study aimed to establish the magnitude of migration of health professionals, its causes and to document the associated impacts on service delivery. [author’s description]

Ghana Case Study: Staff Performance Management in Reforming Health Systems

This study seeks to describe the existing systems for measuring and monitoring staff performance in the clinical setting and covered public and para-statal hospitals in Ghana. [author’s description]

Comprehensive Assessment of Human Resources for Health in Cote d'Ivoire

Partners for Health Reformplus conducted a comprehensive assessment of the public health sector in Côte d’Ivoire to quantify HR available and what is needed to maintain basic health services while scaling up HIV/AIDS services to reach targets at the national level and at the global level through initiatives such as the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the World Health Organization’s 3 by 5 Initiative, and the Millennium Development Goals. [from abstract]

President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Report on Work Force Capacity and HIV/AIDS

This report identifies innovative approaches countries are using to address the shortages of health care workers and describes efforts to achieve long-term sustainability. [author’s description]

Survival and Retention Strategies for Malawian Health Professionals

The broad objective of this paper is to contribute to the retention of health workers in Malawi by providing an enhanced understanding of health workers’ coping strategies, together with the identification of possible strategies that could impact on their retention. [from author]

Abundant for the Few, Shortage for the Majority: the Inequitable Distribution of Doctors in Thailand

This paper reviews the situation and trend in human resources for health and its priority problems in Thailand. It also highlights the issue of the inequitable distribution of doctors. Through several brainstorming sessions among stakeholders, it summarizes a package of recommendations for the future continuous and sustainable knowledge-based human resources for health development. [from abstract]

Migration of Human Resources for Health within and out of Sri Lanka: Report and Analysis 2005

This article addresses some human resource problems amongst which migration of human capital to resourceful settings is detailed as a priority problem. Several factors have contributed to dissatisfaction and human resources, especially those with higher skills and qualifications, migrating towards more resourceful settings, both overseas and within the country. [from abstract]

Coverage and Skill Mix Balance of Human Resources for Health in Myanmar

The township health system in Myanmar is regarded as means to achieve the end of an equitable, efficient and effective health system based on the principles of primary health care approach. A township hospital caters medical care at the second referral level. Under the leadership and management of a Township Medical Officer in each township, para-professionals deployed at Rural Health Centers (RHCs) and Sub-centers under each RHC’s jurisdiction play key roles for providing primary health care services for rural population.

Strengthening the Quality of Human Resources for Health Oriented Toward the District and Village Levels in Lao People's Democratic Republic

This document contains a country analysis on HRH covering situations, trends, and priority problems including issues in undifferentiated strategies of health sector development for remote areas and the shortage and maldistribution of well trained nurses and community nurses. It also includes a discussion on HRH development, strategies and policies in Lao PDR. [adapted from author]

Human Resources on Health (HRH) for Foreign Countries: A Case of Nurse "Surplus" in Indonesia

The nurse program for foreign countries in Indonesia has been carried out since 1996. In the beginning, this program attempted to solve the false ‘surplus’ problem of nurses in Indonesia. Recently, however, the MOH has developed serious concerns with this program. There have been several efforts to promote the nurse program for foreign countries starting with the improvement of education, recruitment and other mechanisms related to nurses for foreign countries. Some achievements, strengths, weaknesses, potentials and threats are discussed in this paper.

Forecasting the Human Resource for Health Requirement in China by the Year 2015

This document report on the trends of HRH during past fifty years including the issues of unqualified doctors in rural areas, geographical differences in HRH, and the increase in medical school graduates. It also forecasts HRH needs for fifteen years from 2000 to 2015.

Demographic Implications for Health Human Resources for Bangladesh

This paper is mainly intended to show the demographic implications for Bangladesh’s Health-human resources production in the next two decades as absolute increase in Population is still too high that the economy can cope with. [author’s description]

Planning, Developing and Supporting the Faith-Based Health Workforce: African Church Health Associations' Human Resources for Health Mini-Forum

The African Church Health Associations’ Human Resources for Health Mini-Forum was held to re-energize the CHA’s human resources working group. The objectives of the forum were to: expand the HRH knowledge base; help develop a critical mass of faith-based HRH advocates; clarify the “Terms of Reference” for an HRH working group and plan for sustainability and next steps; and to generate action plans for HRH practices and identify technical assistance needs. [adapted from author]