Evaluations & Reviews

Involvement of Private General Practitioners in Visiting Primary Healthcare Clinics

The primary healthcare system was adopted as the vehicle of healthcare delivery and a means of reaching the larger part of the population in South Africa in 1994. One of the strategies employed in providing a comprehensive service is the incorporation of visits to clinics by doctors in support of other members of the primary healthcare team, particularly nurses. A successful collaboration at this level brings benefit to everyone involved, particularly patients. Clear expectations and a confusion of roles leads to lack of teamwork, thus it is important to have clearly established models for such involvement. [abstract]

Issues in Health Information: National and Subnational Health Information Systems

This document discusses: definitions of a health information system (HIS); the main actors in HIS; tools and methods used by HIS; experiences in national HIS; and reforming national HIS.

Improving Health, Connecting People: the Role of ICTs in the Health Sector of Developing Countries, a Framework Paper

This framework paper is aimed at policy makers who are involved in the development or management of programmes in the health sector in developing countries. It provides a snapshot of the type of information and communication technology (ICT) interventions that are being used in the health sector, and the policy debates around ICTs and health…The paper describes the major constraints and challenges faced in using ICTs effectively in the health sector of developing countries.

Supporting the Retention of Health Resources for Health: SACD Policy Context

This report presents a review of issues in the regional policy context that are of relevance to the retention of human resources for the health sector (HRH) within the region, based on a rapid appraisal in selected countries and at regional level. This work specifically focussed on the actions needed to stem the flow of international migration by encouraging the retention of health staff within countries. A particular concern raised across countries is staff retention in the public and rural services that preferentially serve the poorest populations. Importantly, policy documents and national

What Interventions Do South African Qualified Doctors Think Will Retain Them in Rural Hospitals of the Limpopo Province of South Africa?

The Department of Health in South Africa has attempted to address the shortage of rural doctors by introducing various interventions, including an increase in salaries, introduction of scarce skills and rural allowances, the deployment of foreign doctors, and upgrading of clinics and hospitals. Despite these, the maldistribution of doctors working in South Africa has not improved significantly. The main objectives of this study were to identify interventions as proposed by doctors in the rural Limpopo province of South Africa and to develop recommendations based on these. [from introduction]

How are Health Professionals Earning Their Living in Malawi?

The migration of health professionals from southern Africa to developed nations is negatively affecting the delivery of health care services in the source countries. Oftentimes however, it is the reasons for the out-migration that have been described in the literature. The work and domestic situations of those health professionals continuing to serve in their posts have not been adequately studied. The present study utilized a qualitative data collection and analysis method. This was achieved through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health professionals and administrators to determine the challenges they face and the coping systems they resort to and the perceptions towards those coping methods. [author’s description]

Cost of Health Professionals' Brain Drain in Kenya

Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA); (ii) to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA); and (iii) to describe other losses from brain drain. [author’s description]

Setting Safe Nurse Staffing Levels: an Exploration of the Issues

One of the resolutions at the RCN’s 2000 Congress expressed concerned at the lack of a universal mechanism to determine safe staffing levels. This reflected widespread concern within the profession about the potential increase in risks to patient safety posed by increased levels of activity, and inadequate levels of nurse staffing, in the NHS. Over the years, there have been many attempts to develop a universally acceptable and reliable formula which will be able to predict the precise nurse staffing levels needed to ensure patient safety. Even if this is not a realistic goal, and the literature on workforce planning suggests that it is not, the Congress resolution provided a timely opportunity to reconsider the important professional and managerial issues associated with setting safe staffing levels.

Human Resources for Health in Europe

This book examines some of the major challenges facing health care professions in Europe and the potential responses to these challenges. The authors document how health care systems in Europe are confronting existing challenges in relation to the health workforce and identify the strategies that are likely to be most effective in optimizing the management of health professionals in the future. [from publisher]

Make Better Use of Provider Time in Public Health Clinics

Concern about increasing demand for reproductive health services has led program managers to examine the productivity and costs of existing programs. While all programs can advocate for additional funds from their governments and establish or increase prices for services to clients, often they can also use their existing resources more efficiently. Evidence from reproductive health programs across developing countries suggests that service providers are often underutilized. [author’s description]

Establishing Integrated Family Planning/Reproductive Health Preservice and Inservice National Clinical Training Systems in Turkey

JHPIEGO has been working since 1991 to support the development of a national integrated clinical training system used for both family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) preservice education and inservice training in Turkey.

Institutionalization of Reproductive Health Preservice Education in the Philippines: An Evaluation of Programmatic Effort, 1987-1998

From 1987 to 1998, JHPIEGO, through its Training in Reproductive Health (TRH) Project, collaborated with the Association of Deans of Philippine Colleges of Nursing (ADPCN) and the Association of Philippine Schools of Midwifery (APSOM) to strengthen preservice nursing and midwifery education in the Philippines. Between 1987 and 1994, JHPIEGO initiated activities to strengthen family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) and enhance trainer/faculty development in five nursing schools and five midwifery schools.

Evaluation of the Institutionalization of Family Planning/ Reproductive Health Inservice Training in Bolivia

Beginning in 1992, JHPIEGO worked in close collaboration with the Bolivia Ministry of Health (MOH) to develop an integrated family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) training network throughout the country. The focus of the assistance was the establishment of nine national training centers (NTCs) for inservice training conducted by physician-nurse teams and located at departmental maternity hospitals in departmental capitals. By 2000, the government of Bolivia and other stakeholders had shifted the training emphasis to preservice education efforts.

Strengthening Preservice Midwifery Education in Ghana: Achievements and Phase 2 Expansion Plans

JHPIEGO and the United States Agency for International Development/Ghana, has now focused on strengthening preservice education for nurses and midwives who provide FP/reproductive health (RH) and safe motherhood services. The phased strategy will ultimately strengthen preservice classroom and clinical training components in all ten midwifery training schools (MTS) in Ghana. To clarify the needs of the training institutions and guide program planning, two needs assessments were conducted at the MTS in Kumasi and Koforidua.

Matched Case-Control Evaluation of the Knowledge and Skills of Midwives in Ghana Two Years after Graduation

JHPIEGO’s strategies for strengthening Ghanaian preservice education in family planning/reproductive health and essential maternal and neonatal care have included: developing and implementing a standardized, competency-based curriculum; improving knowledge and skills of tutors and clinical trainers/preceptors; reinforcing service delivery sites used for clinical practice; and providing schools and clinical training sites with anatomic models and supporting training materials. [adapted from author]

Malawi Health Human Resource Information Systems: Supporting the Development and Monitoring of Health Human Resource Deployment and Training Policies and Plans

WHO, World Bank, and other human resources for health experts globally have recognized the dearth of human resource data for the health sector in many developing countries. In the present assessment, JHPIEGO reviewed the availability of staff deployment and training data from routine information systems in Malawi to inform the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) of deficiencies that would need to be addressed in order to better inform the development and ongoing monitoring of deployment and training policies and plans.
[publisher’s description]

Estimating the Need for Family Planning/Reproductive Health Service Providers in Malawi

Using the training needs projection methods in the Spectrum Policy Modeling System software module ProTrain, this report estimates the numbers of family planning/reproductive health service providers needed to reach total fertility rate and contraceptive prevalence goals for Malawi from 2001-2007. [adapted from publisher]

Making it Happen: Using Distance Learning to Improve Reproductive Health Provider Performance

This publication is for training managers, trainers of health providers, decision-makers, and those who fund and support training actvities. It examines distance learning as an effective training approach for reproductive health providers in developing countries. In addition to describing the components of distance learning, this publication will provide illustrative examples for training health workers, outline steps for starting a distance learning program and suggest additional resources. It will help readers plan and implement effective distance learning. [author’s description]

Performance Improvement: Developing a Strategy for Reproductive Health Services

During the past several years there has been a global trend in business and industry to move from training to performance improvement. This paper presents a review of selected performance improvement and training literature that has been helpful to JHPIEGO in identifying issues related to this trend and in shaping our performance improvement strategy. [author’s description]

Performance and Quality Improvement Process to Improve Infection Prevention: Malawi Case Study

The Malawi Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) sought the assistance of JHPIEGO to implement a performance and quality improvement (PQI) initiative in infection prevention (IP), as one intervention in response to concerns of healthcare workers and potential healthcare workers regarding the existing risks of exposure to infection with major communicable diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, at the country’s hospitals and other health facilities.

High-Performing Reproductive Healthcare Facilities in Kenya: Why They Exceed Expectations

This report summarizes findings from Phase 2 of a two-phase case study to determine why certain reproductive healthcare facilities in low-resource settings perform better than others. The study examined the characteristics, behaviors, and coping strategies of high-performing reproductive healthcare facilities in Kenya, exploring elements of resilience and factors influencing performance.

COPE for Child Health in Kenya and Guinea: an Analysis of Service Quality

This report presents the results of a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study evaluating the introduction and use of COPE and the resulting changes in service quality in two countries, Kenya and Guinea. At the end of a 15-month period, providers’ attitudes, providers’ ability to solve problems, service quality, and client satisfaction were assessed at eight intervention sites and at eight matched control sites, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. [author’s description]

Health Worker Motivation in Africa: the Role of Non-Financial Incentives and Human Resource Management Tools

There is a serious human resource crisis in the health sector in developing countries, particularly in Africa. One of the challenges is the low motivation of health workers. Experience and the evidence suggest that any comprehensive strategy to maximize health worker motivation in a developing country context has to involve a mix of financial and non-financial incentives. This study assesses the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in two cases, in Benin and Kenya. [abstract]

Determinants of Health Worker Motivation in Tblisi, Georgia: a 360 Degree Assessment in Two Hospitals

This paper represents the second phase of a larger study examining health worker motivation in two hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. The overall objective of the 360 degree assessment was to begin to identify the major organizational, situational, and individual factors associated with health worker motivation, and to better understand how major constituencies (i.e., managers, supervisors, workers, and patients) perceive the hospital/work environment. Specific objectives of this study component were to: assess congruence between managers, supervisors and workers on perceptions of hospital goals; compare perceptions of hospital and worker characteristics among types of workers (physician, nurse, other) and levels of respondents (managers, supervisors, workers, patients); and identify possible factors for stimulating good performance and possible interventions for enhancing motivation.

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Home-Based AIDS Care Programme in Rural Uganda

Poverty and limited health services in rural Africa present barriers to adherence to antiretroviral therapy that necessitate innovative options other than facility-based methods for delivery and monitoring of such therapy. We assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-infected people in a home-based AIDS care programme that provides the therapy and other AIDS care, prevention, and support services in rural Uganda. [author’s description]

Private Sector Response to HIV and AIDS in Lesotho

This study attempted to determine the feasibility of a private sector led long-term intervention to reduce the HIV-infection rate among apparel workers and to provide care and support for those already infected. [author’s description]

Health Workforce Issues and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: an Analytical Review

Recent studies have shown evidence of a direct and positive causal link between the number of health workers and health outcomes. Several studies have identified an adequate health workforce as one of the key ingredients to achieving improved health outcomes. This article explores how the Global Fund addresses the challenges of a health workforce bottleneck to the successful implementation of priority disease programmes. [abstract]

Current HIV/AIDS End-of-Life Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Survey of Models, Services, Challenges and Priorities

In response to increased global public health funding initiatives to HIV/AIDS care in Africa, this study aimed to describe practice models, strategies and challenges to delivering end-of-life care in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey end-of-life care programs was conducted, addressing the domains of service aims and configuration, barriers to pain control, governmental endorsement and strategies, funding, monitoring and evaluation, and research. Both closed and qualitative responses were sought. [author’s description]

Uptake of Workplace HIV Counselling and Testing: A Cluster-Randomised Trial in Zimbabwe

HIV counselling and testing is a key component of both HIV care and HIV prevention, but uptake is currently low. We investigated the impact of rapid HIV testing at the workplace on uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). [author’s description]

Operations Research to Improve Financial Sustainability in Three Bolivian NGOs

Many NGOs providing reproductive health (RH) services are facing reductions in donor funding, requiring them to generate more of their own resources. Prosalud, CIES and APSAR, Bolivian NGOs, wanted to build skills in costing and market research to support efforts to improve financial sustainability. Staffs attended a one-week workshop, followed by implementation of three operations research (OR) studies designed to reinforce skills and generate information for decisionmaking. The Prosalud and CIES studies included the calculation of unit cost per service; measurement of client willingness to pay (WTP) higher prices for services, and a market segmentation assessment in selected areas where Prosalud clinics are located.