Family Planning

Romania, Reaching the Poor: Scaling Up Integrated Family Planning Services

This case study examines the scale up of family planning services in Romania through primary care providers. It disucces the process, the challenges, the successful results and the lessons learned.

Malawi Case Study: Choice, Not Chance: a Repositioning Family Planning Case Study

This report evaluates the success of a program to improve family planning services in Malawi. It discusses the importance of community-based distribution, i.e. mobile clinics and community health workers, to the success of family planning in the country since so much of the population is rural.

Choices in Family Planning: Informed and Voluntary Decision Making

The guides in this toolkit are intented to be used to facilitate a broad discussion of the elements and conditions that underpin the concept of informed and voluntary decision making, help users assess the status of sexual reproductive health decision making in a given program by identifying the challenges and supporting factors at the individual/community, service-deliver, and policy levels, and to help users plan strategies to strengthen supports for clients’ reproductive health decision making.

Impact of an In-Built Monitoring System on Family Planning Performance in Rural Bangladesh

This article assesses interventions aimed at improving family planning mechanisms and reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of Bangladesh. [adapted from author]

Postpartum and Newborn Care: a Self-Study Manual for Trainers of Traditional Birth Attendants and Other Community-Level Maternal and Child Health Workers

The purpose of this self-study manual is to provide accurate and accessible information on postpartum and newborn care to trainers of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) and other community-level Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Workers.* The information can be integrated into existing training curricula and materials or it can be adapted into additional units for an ongoing program of instruction for TBAs. [from introduction]

Effect of Community Nurses and Health Volunteers on Child Mortality: the Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning Project

This report presents the child mortality impact of a trial of primary healthcare service delivery strategies in rural Ghana. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, underfive mortality in areas with village-based community-nurse services fell by 16 percent during the five years of program implementation compared with mortality before the intervention. [from abstract]

Birth Spacing

To improve birth spacing services in Cambodia, the development of the communication and counselling skills of all providers is critical. A a large part of this issue focuses on these skills. [editor’s description]

Documentation and Assessment of the Reproductive and Child Health Alliance (RACHA) Program: an External Assessment

This assessment evalutes the RACHA program in Cambodia which was intended to strengthen the capacity and sustainability of the public and private sectors to deliver quality reproductive health and child survival services. The five technical intervention areas were birth spacing, STD/HIV prevention, safe motherhood, childhood diarrhoeal diseases and micronutrient deficiences. One of the key intermediate results identified within these areas was inproved human resource capacity to address these issues. [adapted from author]

Strategic Assessment of Reproductive Health in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

This report describes an assessment of reproductive health needs in LAO People’s Democratic Republic. Chapter 2 focuses on birth spacing and the health worker’s role. There is a great demand for and interest in birth spacing among women and men in the community. Training of health providers on the different contraceptive methods seemed adequate where the program had been introduced, but client counselling (for new and repeated clients) was limited.

Creating Conditions for Greater Private Sector Participation in FP/RH: Benefits for Contraceptive Security

Contraceptive security requires comprehensive and integrated approaches that go beyond the public sector. Private sector involvement is critical not only in helping respond to growing market demand but also in ensuring equity in the contraceptive market. Redirecting well-off clients to the private sector will free up scarce donor and public resources for those most vulnerable and in need. Governments and donors cannot mandate private sector expansion and roles; however, they can create favorable conditions that induce private providers to enter the FP/RH market. [author’s description]

Integrating Counseling and Testing into Family Planning Services: What Happens to the Quality of FP

This presentation details a program to implement and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and cost of two models of integration of HIV prevention information, and routine offer of provider initiated counselling and testing for HIV into family planning (FP) services in 18 health facilities in North West Province, South Africa. [adapted from abstract]

Integrating FP Services in VCT and PMTCT Sites: the Experience of Pathfinder International-Ethiopia in the Amhara Region

To maximize program impact with current resources, integration of Family Planning into existing HIV/AIDS programs is a very cost effective and an excellent point of entry. This is a study of an intervention program focused on initiating and also strengthening existing integration of FP into functional VCT, ART and PMTCT sites. The intervention encompassed an orientation on integration benefits to heads of health facilities; identification of challenges of integration and drawing of plan of action on how to overcome the challenges and improve integration.

IUD Training Site Assessment for Key Social Marketing Project, Pakistan

This IUD assessment tool provides performance standards for IUD provision based on type of visit-new client or revisit. It may be used as part of a programmatic performance improvement initiative, by the site or individual providers to self-assess or by external evaluators to assess achievement of the standards. Often, performance standards are used to affect change at multiple sites. [author’s description]

Strategies for Building RH/FP Champions: the Role of Private Midwives

This presentation was part of the 2006 Global Health Mini-University. This session will provide an overview of factors that support or constrain the delivery of expanded services by midwives. It will discuss successful case studies to build sustainable practices. This includes a program to promote business training and access to financing to grow and improve private midwife practices in the Philippines. Presenters will also discuss the use of networks for private midwives for service expansion, quality improvement, and sustainability in Kenya. [adapted from publisher’s description]

Organizing Work Better

Family planning and other health care organizations in developing countries increasingly must do more with the same resources, and sometimes with fewer. Reorganizing work processes offers one common-sense way to help staff members at all levels cope with growing demands. [author’s description]

Cost-Effectiveness of Self-Assessment and Peer Review in Improving Family Planning Provider-Client Communication in Indonesia

This cost analysis is based on QAP research on the effectiveness of two interventions (self-assessment and peer review) in sustaining or increasing the effectiveness of interpersonal communications training that midwives had taken. The research had measured the effectiveness of the interventions in terms of the number of utterances midwives made during family planning consultations, and this case study followed on, measuring the cost of each intervention in terms of the number of utterances generated.

Checklists Reduce Medical Barriers to Contraceptive Use

Contraceptive provision in many settings continues to be based on outdated medical information, unproven theoretical concerns, and provider biases. Studies have found that in some developing countries 25-50% of women seeking contraceptives are refused services until they are menstruating. Coupled with effective training, checklists can be important tools for health care workers at various levels to apply the latest WHO medical eligibility criteria and guidelines for contraceptive use.

Family Planning Manager's Handbook

The Family Planning Manager’s Handbook is a standard text in management training courses around the world and has received wide recognition as a practical guide for managers of health and family planning programs. [publisher’s description]

Mainstreaming Natural Family Planning: the IRH Experience in the Philippines

This report documents the efforts of the Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) to integrate natural family planning methods into the health delivery system in the Phillipines. It discusses the venues used for implementation such as government and NGO partnerships as well as IRH’s training resources and activities for nurses and midwives on family planning. Finally, the report details best practices and lessons learned from the multi-year project.

Integrating Family Planning and HIV/AIDS Services: a Digest of Key Resources

This first issue of Focus on… presents information about the benefits and challenges of linking HIV/AIDS services and family planning and related reproductive health care. To highlight the major issues of integration (also called linkages), Focus on… summarizes key points from selected resources—most from the past 3 years—that reflect field successes, lessons learned, and further avenues for research.

Quick Investigation of Quality (QIQ): a User's Guide for Monitoring Quality of Care in Family Planning

This user’s guide contains materials needed to design and implement the Quick Investigation of Quality (QIQ) in a given country. QIQ refers to the set of three related data collection instruments designed to monitor 25 indicators of quality of care in clinic-based family planning programs. This volume includes an overview of the QIQ (including objectives, short list of indicators, and methodological and ethical issues), guidelines for sampling and training of field personnel, instruments and guidelines for data collection and summary results from short list of indicators (tabular and graphic forms).

Advancing Reproductive Health and Family Planning through Religious Leaders and Faith-Based Organizations

Pathfinder has provided community-based family planning and reproductive health services to women and men throughout the developing world for over 50 years. Partnerships with local governments and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) allow Pathfinder access into communities to provide information and services. These local organizations provide a solid, established network through which Pathfinder reaches people. Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) are a vital extension of this network. [author’s description]

Public Sector Family Planning: How Can We Pay For It?

Government and donor funds fail to meet growing demands for reproductive health care in the public sector. Strategies to support uch services include: convince governments to invest more in family planning; use market segmentation to direct subsidies to the poor and to direct clients who can afford to pay to the private sector; encourage public-private partnerships to increase use of the private sector; increase the efficiency of service provision in the public sector; plan for the phase-out of donor-provided contraceptives. [author’s description]

Egypt Service Provision Assessment Survey 2004

The 2004 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA 2004) survey was designed to collect informationon the provision of reproductive health and child health services in Egypt in order to complement the information obtained through the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey. The ESPA 2004 collected information on the preparedness of health facilities in Egypt to provide high quality care to clients seeking services for family planning, maternal health, child health, and sexually transmitted infections. A representative sample of 659 clinics of all types of facilities, in both government and nongovernmental organization facilities, was assessed. The survey included, in addition to the resources of the facilities, interviews with service providers, observations of consultations between the providers and clients, and interviews with clients after they were served. The information included in this report is important for identifying areas of intervention that will help improve the quality of family planning, maternal health, and child health services provided to clients. [preface]

Evaluation of the Institutionalization of Family Planning/ Reproductive Health Inservice Training in Bolivia

Beginning in 1992, JHPIEGO worked in close collaboration with the Bolivia Ministry of Health (MOH) to develop an integrated family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) training network throughout the country. The focus of the assistance was the establishment of nine national training centers (NTCs) for inservice training conducted by physician-nurse teams and located at departmental maternity hospitals in departmental capitals. By 2000, the government of Bolivia and other stakeholders had shifted the training emphasis to preservice education efforts.

Establishing Integrated Family Planning/Reproductive Health Preservice and Inservice National Clinical Training Systems in Turkey

JHPIEGO has been working since 1991 to support the development of a national integrated clinical training system used for both family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) preservice education and inservice training in Turkey.

Matched Case-Control Evaluation of the Knowledge and Skills of Midwives in Ghana Two Years after Graduation

JHPIEGO’s strategies for strengthening Ghanaian preservice education in family planning/reproductive health and essential maternal and neonatal care have included: developing and implementing a standardized, competency-based curriculum; improving knowledge and skills of tutors and clinical trainers/preceptors; reinforcing service delivery sites used for clinical practice; and providing schools and clinical training sites with anatomic models and supporting training materials. [adapted from author]

Establishing a Nursing Student Learning Center for Women's Reproductive Health in Nepal

The goal of this paper is to describe the establishment of a self-sustaining Student Learning Center (SLC) employing humanistic anatomical models to aid in the teaching of family planning and reproductive health clinical skills to nursing students in Nepal.

Estimating the Need for Family Planning/Reproductive Health Service Providers in Malawi

Using the training needs projection methods in the Spectrum Policy Modeling System software module ProTrain, this report estimates the numbers of family planning/reproductive health service providers needed to reach total fertility rate and contraceptive prevalence goals for Malawi from 2001-2007. [adapted from publisher]

Measuring Provider Performance: Challenges and Definitions

While the need to measure performance in the field of family planning and reproductive health care FP/RH) is widely recognized, there is no consensus on a standard definition of the term. Consequently, when organizations and projects describe or measure performance, particularly in the context of health worker or program evaluations, the term may be used in ambiguous and confusing or even contradictory ways. [author’s description]